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Global warming can be defined as the average increase in overall  temperature  of earth in the last 100 years or so due to the greenhouse gaseous effects  such as release of gases like CO2 , Methane (CH4 ) etc. due to burning of fossil fuels or deforestation  in a large amount which is heating up the atmosphere of earth resulting into overall increase of temperature of earth. Global warming is the term used to denote the average   increase of temperature which is  up to  5  degree  Celcius  in past 100 years or so in temperature which leads to more dry spells in weather all over the planet  & a quicker melting of ice caps  in the glaciers & in north pole or Antartic  which is posing danger of extinction to many of the low level cities or ports on ocean beach by increasing water level of oceans by the melting of ice at a very fast rate. Global warming is occurring  due to the mixing of different greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons (or CFCs ), nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, water  vapour  etc.  into the atmosphere through different  means  of industrial wastes , flames of houses or factories , refrigerators  or air conditioners , deforestation , forest fires etc. & these gases after mixing with atmosphere make a layer over the atmosphere which allows the sunlight to be absorbed more on earth but  do not allow it reflect back so the temperature of earth kept going to increase & the earth is becoming hot due to this greenhouse effect . In short, we can understand the term global warming as the threat to all our living organisms & natural processes of life on earth. It can also be called as the greatest of the challenge which our planet is facing nowadays. Today most of the developed countries are responsible for it as they are the maximum emitters of greenhouse gases &  their share of emission is very much high than the developing countries in harming the atmosphere. Global warming is occurring due to the increased level of water vapour in the atmosphere which is also a greenhouse gas  & it leads towards a more increase in temperature which is posing a great danger to our atmosphere &  to our planet earth. Other gases like methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide, sulphur monoxide, ozone etc. are released in increased concentration in the atmosphere due to large population growths, deforestation, increased industrial growth, urbanisation etc.


According to most scientists, the global average temperature is increasing at the rate of  0.5 degrees Celcius from the last century onwards, which means that the earth is becoming hot from 1.2-degree celsius to 5.8-degree celsius in last 100 or 150 years. As a result of this the planet is getting warmer & drier year by year .looking at the meteorological stats of last century the year 1990 was considered as the hottest year of last century. Not only this year but the subsequent years of 1983,  1985, 1987, 1989 & 1991 are also the warmest six years of the planet looking at the temperature of last 100 years or so. Out of these six the year, 1991 is the second most warmer year of the century. now looking at the carbon sequestration or emission data of different countries so all the developed nations such as USA, U.K., Canada, Russia, China, Australia  &  many countries of European Union  are having a very heavy & large share of  about more than 70 %  mixing of greenhouse gases in earth atmosphere  & creating the worldwide problem of global warming . Today there is also a decrease in the ozone layer of atmosphere over the Australian continent due to which there is danger of coming of harmful  ultraviolet rays  direct to earth from the sun which is posing many health-related skin problems to humans & all this is happening because of emission of large amount of CFCs in atmosphere which broke down our protective ozone layer of atmospheric zone . The rate of carbon dioxide emission is also increased to many folds in this century as looking at statistics you can easily find out that the rate of emission is  nearly 6 million tons emission of carbon dioxide is from USA  alone , which is 22 % of the emission of whole world   & due to this there is  an increase of 2 degree Celcius in temperature  & 5 % increase in rainfall  in the last 50 years or so, which are the only outcomes of globally increased temperature due to global warming .  Also, the sea level has risen up to 7 inches due to the global warming which has posed a threat to many island & coastal countries. Also, the rate of carbon emission is almost double from the last century onwards as looking at the statistics framed by different scientists  i.e. it is 345 ppm in nowadays from 290 ppm in the 1960s  which is a very sharp increase in a very short span of time. Several species of land & water of plants & animals are going towards extinction as they are not able to adapt to high-temperature conditions in their habitats, for example, Golden Toad is the first species of toads which is considered to be getting extinct due to rise in global temperature. There is also a lot more increase in temperature n temperate areas of the earth as well which is leading them towards a decreasing rate of snowfall  & short winters in those areas. So these are some of the facts about global warming presented here.


There are many causes of global warming which are to be called as human causes or natural causes .The activities of humans which create the rise in global temperature are known as the human causes of global warming  & the average slow increase in temperature due to the earth’s natural climate change activities are known as natural causes of global warming.  The different causes  of global warming  are mentioned below:

  1. Human causes of global warming: There are various human activities which are solely responsible for the average increase in global temperature & pose the danger of making earth as the hot planet.The different  human activities  which pose the danger of  release of  greenhouse gases in atmosphere are by  means of  using vehicles like cars, trucks, transport means such as trains , aeroplanes  etc.  which emits a very high amount of carbon dioxide in the  atmosphere which is responsible for increasing the temperature of earth as carbon dioxide like gases do not allow the going back of the  absorbed sunlight into the space by trapping it in our atmosphere  & make earth hotter .Also, humans use air conditioners &  refrigerators which use CFCs gases for providing cooling  & microwave ovens for heating or cooking food which uses high wavelength microwaves for cooking food by increasing its temperature  & all these are also greenhouse gases which are responsible for global warming. Human built nuclear reactors for production of electricity at low cost are also a very important cause of global warming as their gaseous wastes spoil the earth’s atmosphere & increase its temperature.Deforestation is also another cause of global warming which is also an outcome of faulty human methods or policies of development. As we know very well that forests are the only means of purifying the atmosphere by absorbing the carbon dioxide & providing oxygen  ; but if we  remove forests by cutting or burning them   than they vice versa  release the carbon dioxide in atmosphere rather consuming it & pollute atmosphere at a heavy rate & as a consequence they  lead towards global warming . Also the industrial wastes of human industries like leather industry , paper industry , plywood industry , cloth industry , steel industry , liquor industry , motor industry etc. are  also responsible for average increase in temperature of earth  due to global warming  as these waste products consists of different greenhouse & heavy gases which  cause warming effect on earth .
  2. Natural causes of global warming: These are the causes of global warming which are on the shorter side of the concern & are much less important as compared to human causes of global warming. These include the release of methane gas from the melting of ice caps due to earth natural rise of temperature which is not at a large scale but is good enough to increase earth temperature. Also, the earth natural process of formation from many centuries is also causing a slight increase in earth temperature.

A volcanic eruption is also a natural calamity which also increases the earth temperature  & leads towards global warming.


Considering the effects of global warming, they are very hazardous &   long lasting in our social as well natural life  & from human beings to all other species of our planet. The different effects of global warming  are  listed below:

  1. Rise above sea level: The overall increase in sea level is from 3 to 7 inches in last 70 years or so which is dangerous &  harmful to many low sea coasts & islands & posing a danger to the marine & land life of these places.
  2. Change in weather patterns  &  shrinking of winter seasons: Due to global warming, the weather & climate patterns of most regions of the earth have been changed   & this change is on large grounds.  The areas where there are subsequent droughts are facing floods  & flooded areas are facing drought conditions.In some areas, winter seasons have also shrunk from  3 or 4 months to 2 -3 months which has a very bad effect on the species of animals & plants of these areas.
  3. Change in cropping patterns: Cropping patterns in most of the world are also changed due to the increased temperature  & crops have been changed from cold season crops to hot weather crops which are making a low production & availability of cold crops. 
  4. Melting of glaciers &  overflowing of rivers: All these conditions leads towards the floods in certain areas which causes loss of property & death of humans & animals & this is only because of global warming.
  5. Harm to protective atmospheric layer: Due to rising in temperature the earth’s atmosphere is no more able to protect us from harmful UVrays from the sun which are coming directly on earth & causing many health & skin problems to humans  & animals.
  6. Destruction of many species of plants & animals: Many species of wildlife like  Toads, fishes & plants are getting extinct due to an overall increase in temperature because of global warming.
  7. Killing of temperate animals due to the melting of glaciers & as a result they are rendered homeless  & foodless, as a result, they are going towards a decrease in their number on earth.


As global warming is posing danger to our environment  & our planet on a very large scale so there are urgent needs of stopping it otherwise it is not possible for humans also to live on earth & we also become homeless. There are different means through we can stop global warming   such as;

  1. Use of public transport in place of personal vehicles, so that there is less sequestration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere  .
  2. Planting of more & more trees despite cutting them  & by avoiding deforestation we can completely cure the problem of temperature rise.
  3. Using less harmful means of energy production or by making the proper means for depositing the nuclear wastes so that the greenhouses are not released into the atmosphere .
  4. Less use of modern equipment like a microwave oven, air conditioners or refrigerators etc. to control greenhouse gaseous emissions in our atmosphere.
  5. Prevention of forest fires by GPS  positioning or by satellites to cure carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere.
  6. By preventing burning of fossil fuels, which release lot more dangerous gases like nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide etc. in the atmosphere leading to global warming.
  7. By using CNG vehicles which do not leads to increase carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere & as a result prevents earth burning form high temperature.
  8. By framing International policies & rules for controlling the emissions of greenhouse gases  &  for controlling global warming.

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