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All about “Beef (meat)”

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Health profile

Beef is nutritious red meat that can be part of a healthy diet. It contains vitamins (particularly group B vitamins) and several minerals present in large quantities (selenium, zinc, iron, copper). People who do not consume beef or other red meats must pay particular attention to the daily integration of meat substitutes into their diet to ensure that their needs for these different minerals and vitamins are met.

Active ingredients and properties

Cancer . The effect of eating red meat on the incidence of various cancers is controversial. Several studies in different countries have reported an association between high consumption of red meat and the higher incidence of colorectal cancer in both men and women 1-4 . While some studies have failed to demonstrate an association between eating red meat and the risk of colon cancer , 6 , researchers have observed a decrease in colorectal cancers among consumers of lean beef 7 . In addition, this relationship would be particularly observed in the case of a daily consumption of more than 140 g of red meat. A decrease in meat consumption in people who already have a colorectal adenoma does not seem to reduce the risk of tumor recurrence 8 .

Consumption of red meat (and animal fat) has also been associated with an increase in breast cancer in some studies , 10 , while no association has been observed in others 11 , 12 . In addition, consumption of red meat or beef has been linked to a higher risk of other cancers, such as cancer of the pancreas 13 , lung 14 , gall bladder 15 , stomach and esophagus 16 and certain types of prostate cancer 17. It should be noted that all of these studies did not use the same data collection methods, which could have led to biases in the evaluation of the actual consumption of red meat.

Given the controversial effect of eating red meat on the risk of cancer, some authors wanted to qualify the controversy. Researchers have pointed out that in some countries, although consumption of red meat tends to decrease over time, the incidence of colorectal cancer tends to increase 18. One of the reasons proposed to explain this observation is the low consumption of foods “protective” against cancer (such as fruits and vegetables) often associated with a diet rich in red meats. Red meat is therefore not directly involved, but rather the deficit in protective compounds present in plants. Other studies have looked more specifically at such compounds (protective or otherwise) potentially involved in these observed effects.

  • AHC and HAP . Certain potentially carcinogenic compounds are formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures, for example heterocyclic amines (AHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 13 . The formation of these compounds depends on the method, the temperature and the degree of cooking. Cooking on the grill and on the barbecue, as well as frying, produce large quantities of these carcinogenic compounds, while cooking in the oven, roasts or stews forms only negligible quantities. Several studies have observed a link between overcooking meats and different types of cancer , 10,13,16. For example, browning or charring of the outside of the meat should be avoided, while making sure to cook the meat enough to kill bacteria.
  • Fat . The consumption of red meats, such as beef, inevitably leads to a higher intake of lipids in the diet. Some studies have looked into the links that may exist between the consumption of lipids and red meats and the risk of cancer. A prospective study carried out by a team of renowned researchers has shown that the consumption of lipids from animal sources (particularly from red meat) was associated with a higher incidence of colorectal cancers 19. More recently, the authors of a review article presenting the results of several researches concluded that the positive association observed between the total fat intake of the diet and the risk of colorectal cancer is more attributable to the consumption of red meat. 20. This type of food is associated with an increased incidence of colon and prostate cancer. According to the authors, it would therefore be advisable to recommend a reduction in the consumption of red meat, in particular beef (fatty cuts) and cold meats rather than a reduction in fat in the diet (especially those of vegetable origin) since red meat would bring no additional benefit in terms of cancer prevention. Researchers have also observed that the incidence of colorectal cancer increases only with the intake of high-fat meats (for example sausages, viscera and cold cuts) and that it decreases with the consumption of lean red meats 21. As the results of the studies are contradictory and that several other factors could be involved, the real implication of lipids in the incidence of cancers, particularly colorectal cancer, is not yet known.
  • Heme iron. Red meat contains higher amounts of heme iron than white meat. Heme iron has been shown to cause damage to the lining of the colon and promote the growth of cancer cells in animal studies. Heme iron also promotes the formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds 36 .
  • Neu5Gc . A new study has shown that a sugar molecule called Neu5Gc (N-glycolylneuraminic acid) which is found in the flesh of beef, lamb and pork but also in dairy products would trigger an immune response which can lead to a chronic inflammation of the tissues and thus contribute to the growth of cancerous tumor. Long-term exposure to this sugar in mice increased the risk of developing cancer by five times 37 .
  • Vitamins and minerals . Protective compounds against cancer are also present in red meat, such as beef. Some studies have observed an inverse relationship between blood zinc and selenium levels and the incidence of certain cancers 22 . These two minerals are present in large quantities in red meat in addition to being highly bioavailable . In addition, beef liver is an exceptional source of vitamin A and folate (vitamin B9). Folate has been associated with a reduced risk of certain cancers.

Cardiovascular diseases . As early as the 1940s, researchers noticed that proteins of animal origin had a cholesterol- lowering effect , unlike vegetable proteins, which are more likely to lower blood cholesterol 23 . More recently, an observational study carried out with more than 6,000 participants found that the higher the consumption of meat , fish and poultry proteins , the higher the blood cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B concentrations ( protein attached to LDL cholesterol particles (commonly known as “bad” cholesterol) participants were high 23. In addition, high consumption of beef was specifically related to higher concentrations of these two blood parameters, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, compared to participants who consumed the least. A recent study, the aim of which was to review more than 50 research studies on the subject, rather concluded that lean red meat , devoid of its visible fat, did not increase total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol (“bad”). cholesterol) in the blood 24 . These results suggest that moderate consumption of lean beef can be part of a healthy diet.

In both the United States and Canada, recommendations for cardiovascular health suggest decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids , given their detrimental effects on blood cholesterol levels 25 , 26 . Depending on the cut of meat used, 30% to 40% of the fat in beef comes from saturated fat. However, it should be noted that the consumption of stearic acid, a fatty acid that represents about a third of the total saturated fatty acid content of beef (except for beef liver, in which it represents more than two thirds), has different effects on the blood lipid profile compared to other fatty acids saturated. In fact, stearic acid slightly decreases the “total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol)” ratio, this effect being a protective factor for cardiovascular disease 27 . Although these results demonstrate that not all saturated fatty acids are harmful, their replacement by unsaturated fatty acids ( monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) is nevertheless desirable since it has been shown to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease 27 .

Singular results were observed during a study evaluating the effect of the consumption of lipids and animal proteins on cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). By analyzing the diet of over 85,000 women, the authors found that those with lower animal protein intake were more at risk of suffering from intraparenchymal hemorrhage (a type of stroke), compared to those with a higher intake 28 . The authors pointed out that this observation could explain the high incidence of this type of stroke in certain Asian countries where the consumption of meat is low 28 .

Diabetes . Observational study found that women who ate beef or ham more than twice a week were at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to women who consumed less than one times a week 29 . Cholesterol, protein and iron in beef are dietary factors that may partially explain this association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. 29. In addition, two large studies have observed that a western-style diet (characterized among other things by a high consumption of red and processed meats, high-fat dairy products, refined sugars and desserts) was more associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women compared to a so-called “careful” diet (characterized by high consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish, poultry and whole grains) 30,31 . In women, these studies have shown that a high consumption of red meat was linked to the increase in diabetes 31 .

Inflammatory diseases . Consumption of meat and organ meats has often been associated with increased inflammation in people with inflammatory diseases . 32 Recently, researchers have observed that people who eat more than about 58 g (about 2 oz) of meat a day are almost twice as likely to have rheumatoid arthritis. 33. The presence of several compounds in meat could partially explain these associations (including the types of lipids, proteins, iron and nitrites in meat), but more studies will be necessary in order to identify precisely the food compounds involved. The data currently available do not allow us to conclude beyond any doubt that the consumption of meat increases the incidence of inflammatory diseases. It is still recommended to people at risk or suffering from arthritis to limit or reduce their consumption of meat, in order to benefit from the positive effects connected to it 34 .

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) . CLA is a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids, derived from linoleic acid. Produced inter alia during the process of digestion of ruminants, CLA are present exclusively in the meat obtained from these animals (beef, lamb, mutton, deer), as well as in milk and dairy products. Beef contains relatively high amounts of CLA. These fatty acids are known for their potential beneficial effects against cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetes, as well as on the immune system and body composition 35. As research on CLA has been done more in animals and the mechanisms by which these fatty acids exert their effects remain unclear, researchers remain cautious about issuing clear recommendations regarding their consumption. In addition, the majority of studies have been carried out using CLA supplements, so the effect of CLA naturally present in beef remains to be determined. It is still interesting to know that the different cuts of beef would contain from 0.01 g to 0.06 g of CLA per 100 g of meat, depending on their fat content. In studies carried out using supplements, therapeutic effects have been observed at daily doses of 3.5 g to 7 g of CLA (see our sheet Conjugated linoleic acid ).

Other properties

Is beef antioxidant? Data not available.
Is beef acidifying? Moderately . Beef has a PRAL index of 7.8.
Does beef have a high glycemic load? There is no glycemic load for meats because they do not contain carbohydrates.

Most important nutrients

See the meaning of the nutrient source classification symbols

Excellent source Phosphorus . Beef is an excellent source of phosphorus (see our Phosphorus nutrient fact sheet ). Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the body after calcium. It plays an essential role in the formation and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. In addition, it participates among other things in the growth and regeneration of tissues and helps to maintain normal blood pH . It is one of the constituents of cell membranes.

Excellent source Iron . Rib roast and indoor round steak are excellent sources of iron for men and good sources for women . Ground beef is also an excellent source of iron for men , but only a source for women , since their respective needs for this mineral are different. Beef liver is an excellent sourceof iron. Each body cell contains iron. This mineral is essential for the transport of oxygen and the formation of red blood cells in the blood. It also plays a role in the production of new cells, hormones and neurotransmitters (the messengers in nerve impulses). It should be noted that the iron contained in food of animal origin is very well absorbed by the body, compared to iron from plants.

Excellent source Zinc . Beef is an excellent source of zinc. Zinc is involved in particular in immune reactions, in the production of genetic material, in the perception of taste, in the healing of wounds and in the development of the fetus. Zinc also interacts with sex and thyroid hormones. In the pancreas, it participates in the synthesis (production), the storage and the release of insulin.

Excellent source Copper . Beef liver is an excellent source of copper. Indoor round steak is a good source of copper. However, ground beef and rib roast are only sources . As a constituent of several enzymes, copper is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin and collagen (protein used for the structure and repair of tissues) in the body. Several copper-containing enzymes also help the body’s defense against free radicals .

Excellent source Selenium . Beef is an excellent source of selenium. This mineral works with one of the main antioxidant enzymes, thus preventing the formation of free radicals in the body. It also helps to convert thyroid hormones to their active form.

Excellent source Vitamin B2 . Beef liver, ground beef and roast ribs are excellent sources of vitamin B2. Indoor round steak is a good source of this vitamin, also known as riboflavin. Like vitamin B1, riboflavin plays a role in the energy metabolism of all cells. In addition, it contributes to tissue growth and repair, hormone production and the formation of red blood cells.

Excellent source Vitamin B3 . Beef is an excellent source of vitamin B3. Also called niacin, vitamin B3 participates in many metabolic reactions and contributes particularly to the production of energy from the carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and alcohol that we ingest. It also participates in the DNA formation process , allowing normal growth and development.

Excellent source Pantothenic acid . Beef liver is an excellent source of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). Ground beef is a good source of pantothenic acid, while rib roast and indoor round steak are sources. Pantothenic acid is part of a key coenzyme in the energy use of the food we eat. It also participates in several stages of the synthesis of steroid hormones, neurotransmitters and hemoglobin.

Excellent source Vitamin B6 . Rib roast, indoor round steak and beef liver are excellent sources of vitamin B6, while ground beef is one source. Vitamin B6, also called pyridoxine, is part of coenzymes that participate in the metabolism of proteins and fatty acids as well as in the synthesis (manufacture) of neurotransmitters (messengers in nerve impulses). It also contributes to the production of red blood cells and allows them to transport more oxygen. Pyridoxine is also necessary for the transformation of glycogen into glucose and it contributes to the proper functioning of the immune system. This vitamin finally plays a role in the formation of certain components of nerve cells and in the modulation of hormone receptors.

Excellent source Folate . Beef liver is an excellent source of folate (vitamin B9). Folate is involved in the production of all cells in the body, including red blood cells. This vitamin plays an essential role in the production of genetic material (DNA, RNA), in the functioning of the nervous system and the immune system, as well as in the healing of wounds and wounds. As it is necessary for the production of new cells, adequate consumption is essential during periods of growth and for the development of the fetus.

Excellent source Vitamin B12 . Beef is an excellent source of vitamin B12. This vitamin works together with folic acid (vitamin B9) to make red blood cells in the blood. It also works to maintain nerve cells and the cells that make bone tissue.

Excellent source Vitamin A . Beef liver is an excellent source of vitamin A, especially in the form of retinol, one of the active forms of vitamin A in the body. Vitamin A is one of the most versatile vitamins, playing a role in several body functions. It promotes, among other things, the growth of bones and teeth. It keeps the skin healthy and protects against infections. In addition, it plays an antioxidant role and promotes good vision, especially in the dark.

Good source Manganese . Beef liver is a good source of manganese. Manganese acts as a cofactor for several enzymes that facilitate a dozen different metabolic processes. It also participates in the prevention of damage caused by free radicals.

Good source Vitamin B1 . Beef liver is a good source of vitamin B1. Ground beef, rib roast and indoor round steak are sources . Also called thiamine, vitamin B1 is part of a coenzyme necessary for the production of energy mainly from the carbohydrates that we eat. It also participates in the transmission of nerve impulses and promotes normal growth.

Good source Vitamin D . Rib roast is a good source of vitamin D. Ground beef, indoor round steak, and beef liver are sources of this vitamin. Vitamin D plays a vital role in the health of bones and teeth, by making available calcium and phosphorus in the blood, among other things for the growth of bone structure. It also participates in the maturation of cells, including cells of the immune system.

What is a “portion” of beef worth?
Weight / volume Ground beef, lean, grilled, well done, 100 g Roast rib cross, lean piece, braised, 100 g Round interior steak, lean, grilled, 100 g Braised beef liver, 100 g
Calories 252 206 163 191
Protein 28.0 g 34.8 g 30.1g 29.1g
Carbohydrates 0.0 g 0.0 g 0.0 g 5.1g
Fat 14.7 g 11.3 g 3.9 g 5.3 g
-saturated 5.8 g 4.1g 1.3 g 1.7g
– monounsaturated 6.8g 4.7 g 1.5g 0.7 g
-polyunsaturated 0.4 g 0.4 g 0.2g 0.6g
Cholesterol 81 mg 82 mg 65 mg 396 mg
Dietary fiber 0.0 g 0.0 g 0.0 g 0.0 g

Source : Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File , 2005.

Precautions

Ground beef can be responsible for foodborne illness. Escherichia coli(E. coli) is a naturally occurring bacteria found in the intestines of livestock, and it can sometimes contaminate the surface of the meat during slaughter. When the meat is ground, the process can spread the bacteria throughout the meat. However, sanitation measures can prevent foodborne illness. In addition to washing hands and work surfaces, it is important to avoid cross-contamination of raw meat with other foods or surfaces and to ensure that the beef is cooked properly. Internal cooking temperatures are available on the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) website. Foodborne illness is manifested by stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and fever.

Cooking Meats
To take full advantage of the health properties of beef, it is important to cook it adequately to avoid the formation of potentially carcinogenic compounds. Avoid charring or overcooking the meat and use frying and cooking on the grill or barbecue less often.

Research  : Sonia Pomerleau, Dt.PMSc., Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University
Writing  : Caroline Trudeau, Dt.P., Nutritionist, Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (INAF), Université Laval
Collaboration  : Louise Corneau, Dt.P., M.Sc., Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods Institute (INAF), Laval University and Hélène Gagnon, nutrition student, Laval University
Scientific review  : Sophie Desroches, Dt.PMSc., Doctoral candidate , Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University
(January 2016)

 

Beef over time

The term “beef” , which appeared in the language in 1155, is derived from the Latin bos . Although it does not come from Europe, the species Bos taurus is often given the name of “European beef”, the diversity of cultures and the geographic remoteness of the regions on this continent having led to the selection of many breeds with well-defined characteristics and which form the bulk of modern farming in the world.

European beef and zebu are the two main species of domesticated cattle. Their common ancestor is the monumental aurochs that humans have hunted since time immemorial. The aurochs would have been domesticated 7000 or 8000 years ago in the south-west of Asia and, perhaps at the same time, in the north of Africa.

The ox was first considered as a sacred animal intended for ritual sacrifices, during which the death of the moon goddess was symbolically replayed, which he represented with his lyre-shaped horns. Then, with the appearance of agriculture, it became a symbol of fertility. In Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley, it takes on phenomenal importance. It is venerated and represented in statues while, in ancient Greece and Rome, it is offered in ritual sacrifices.

We quickly discover the usefulness of beef as a draft animal, whether for pulling the sacred wagons or, later, the wooden plow, which it followed its expansion towards the west. From the IV th  millennium BC, the castrated male is harnessed and put to work.

A little spice?
The taste for beef meat is recent, historically speaking. In Greece and Rome, only the wealthy class eats, a situation that will prevail until the end of the Middle Ages, when Europeans will discover an excessive appetite for this red meat. According to some, it is the desire to find spices and seasonings to prepare and preserve it that will launch them on the seas to conquer the world.

During the Middle Ages, in the countryside, beef was primarily a draft animal and a source of milk. It is only slaughtered when it is exhausted by work, numerous lactations or age. It will therefore be necessary to show a lot of imagination to prepare the tough flesh of these animals, which we qualified, and still describes in France, as “old godmothers”. This is how stew and pot-au-feu will be born as well as, in England, stews and dishes of braised or boiled meat which remain, despite everything, the prerogative of the rich, the poor generally having to be satisfied with organ meats: tripe, kidneys, soft (lung), tongue, tail, everything goes to the pan.

The first oxen entered America during the second voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1494, while he founded, on the island of Hispaniola (today Haiti and the Dominican Republic), the first European establishment on the continent. The animals will multiply and live more or less in the wild, so that they will be hunted rather than raised. It will not be long before beef is found all over the American continent, from the north to the south.

Even today, in several regions of the world, beef continues to be a working tool in addition to providing solid leather for making drums, shields, clothing and bedding, and bones for shaping scrapers. and cooking utensils. Its manure is often used as fuel and as cement, and its urine is used for washing and tanning hides.

Although only a few breeds dominate the market, hundreds have been selected over the centuries. Today, breeders are once again looking for these older breeds with a wider genetic background in order to improve modern herds, which are often very sensitive to diseases and parasites or whose females present difficulties when calving.

Culinary uses

Preparation and precautions

It is no longer recommended today to let the meat sit on the counter until it reaches room temperature; it is best to pass it directly from the refrigerator to the pan or frying pan.

Cooking temperatures to be measured using a
Roast meat thermometer  : 57 to 60 ºC (135-140 ºF). Let stand 15 minutes after cooking. The internal temperature will further increase by 3 to 5 degrees.
Steak: 63 ºC (145 ºF). Place the thermometer horizontally in the meat.
Ground beef: 72 ºC (160 ºF).

If possible, mince your own meat just before preparing it, using a large knife or meat grinder; the risks of bacterial proliferation will be greatly reduced.
The utmost vigilance is required with regard to the maintenance of utensils, containers, plates, cutting boards that come into contact with raw meat. Wash them in hot, soapy water immediately after use. Regularly rub the work surface with vinegar or half a lemon deprived of its juice.
If you want to cook pieces of beef in a slow cooker ( crock pot or slow cooker), whose cooking temperatures remain very low, first heat them to high temperature in order to destroy the bacteria which could be present on the surface.
The less tender pieces will benefit from marinating for one to five days in the refrigerator in a preparation necessarily including an acidic substance: citrus juice, wine, cider, vinegar or yogurt. Add the spices of your choice, a good olive oil, soy or Worcestershire sauce, honey, etc.
The roasting pieces can be brined for 24 hours in water with added sugar and salt. Then leave the meat to rest for a day in the refrigerator. It will be much more tender after this treatment.
Leave a roast to rest for 15 or 20 minutes after removing from the oven, which allows a good distribution of the juices in the flesh. Cover it with aluminum foil to keep it warm.
As much as possible, buy roasts and braised pieces with bones. They give the flesh more flavor and prevent it from shrinking too much during cooking.

Offal

Tongue: to get rid of its impurities, put it to rinse under a trickle of cold water for an hour, or simply leave it to soak by changing the water a few times.
Liver : remove the transparent membrane that covers it, then put it to soak in milk to remove some of its bitterness.
Tripe : fresh, it requires a long cooking (a dozen hours, and even more). It is best to buy them partially cooked and then prepare them according to the recipe of your choice.

Culinary dishes

  • The must-have hamburger can be prepared with minced garlic and onions, thyme, parsley, or other herbs of your choice. For an unusual taste experience, add chopped black olives. If the mixture is not homogeneous enough, add a raw egg and breadcrumbs. Mix the ingredients well and brown in the pan or grill in the oven. Top with a roasted pepper coulis.
  • The tartar steak , which was invented in the XIV th  century by the Tartars, is prepared with the net, which must first be cut into slices and then into cubes and then chop. Stir in an egg yolk, a finely chopped shallot, salt, pepper, a little sunflower oil, chopped parsley and, if you want to add a little acidity, a few drops of white wine.
  • The success of carpaccio , this raw meat dish, created in homage to a Venetian Renaissance painter, is due to the thinness of its slices. To succeed, put the piece of fillet in the freezer for ten minutes, it will be much easier to slice. Season the bottom of a plate with salt and pepper. Add the meat slices and season again with salt and pepper. Top with a vinaigrette based on lemon juice and olive oil. Garnish with a julienne of blanched lemon zest and serve with an arugula salad and bread croutons.
  • The stew is prepared with meat taken in the shoulder and cut into cubes, which is cooked in a thick casserole dish with red wine, garlic in a shirt, a bay leaf, a few cloves, dried citrus peel. Add a piece of unsalted bacon. Cooking lasts 3 or 4 hours in the oven or 8 to 10 hours in a slow cooker set at low temperature.
  • Serve the leftover beef in a warm salad with the flesh of a fried eggplant, shallots, lime juice and a pinch of sugar. Add hot pepper if desired.
  • For excursions or expeditions, jerky (dried meat) is second to none. It is commercially available, but is generally treated with nitrites and often made from reconstituted ground meat. The real jerky is never chopped. You can do it yourself by first cutting the meat into thin slices in the opposite direction to the fibers. Throw the slices in simmering water or marinade and remove them as soon as the liquid has returned to its boiling point. Then put the slices to dry in a dehydrator or in an oven set from 60 to 72 ºC (160 ºF) for 7 to 12 hours, until the meat is dry but not brittle.
  • The heart is served in slices 1 to 1.5 cm thick which are cooked until they are a beautiful rare pink. You can also keep it whole and stuff it before putting it in the oven on low heat. Or cook it in milk and a white background, or in a mixture of brown background and red wine.
  • Poach the prepared tongue (see the Offal section above) in a court-bouillon made with water, onions, leeks, carrots, garlic, celery, a bouquet garni, juniper berries , salt and pepper that we have previously cooked for 45 minutes. Simmer until the tongue is cooked through. Remove the white skin that covers it, then cut it into beautiful slices which will be served coated with a gribiche sauce.
  • Simmer the tail for a long time in a vegetable broth and serve as a soup. Or prepare it by putting it in cold water: bring to a boil, skim; add calf’s feet, onions, pepper, one or two celery stalks, one or two carrots, a head of garlic and a bouquet garni; cook simmering until the flesh comes off the bones; shred the meat and serve with the reduced broth and mashed potatoes.

In Asia , beef is cooked in curries that are served on rice or rice noodles. Thai people simmer it gently in milk and coconut cream. The Chinese sauté it in a wok with lots of sliced ​​vegetables.

Ecology and environment

Grass and hay
Unlike that of poultry, the digestive system of ruminants is poorly adapted to the grain which, in nature, they consume only in small quantities. And yet, in modern livestock, cattle are eating less and less grass and more and more grains and concentrates. Researchers have shown that the meat of beef raised on pasture contains less saturated fat and is less calorific (100 calories less in a 170-gram steak) than that of beef raised in grain. In addition, it contains more vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids (two to six times more) and conjugated linolenic acid.

In addition, the intestines of ruminants that eat little grass harbor 300 times more E. coli bacteria than those of animals raised on pasture. In the long run, these bacteria become resistant to the gastric acidity of the animal and, when they are accidentally transmitted to humans, they survive the high doses of acidity present in its stomach and are, therefore, much more harmful.

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