The passion of gardening from Europe to Asia

This is a first: France and China have formed a partnership around learning gardening in schools. With the 2015-2016 school year, 22,000 children from French-speaking schools in Beijing were introduced to the joys of growing flowers and vegetables, while at the same time, in France, the 17th edition of gardening in schools was getting ready. Beijing renews the operation in 2016-2017.

The initiative had never been taken yet … While 68,000 children were preparing to take part in the 2016 School Gardening Week , 22,000 children from French schools in the Chinese capital were discovering at school. the millennial gestures of gardening. The French Embassy in Beijing launched the movement, with the support of the Limagrain seed production company . The principle ? Each participating school had to identify an area of 20 m2 (or its equivalent in bins and planters), define a kitchen garden project and make it live from sowing to harvesting. In June 2016, an awards ceremony was organized to distinguish the most successful projects.

Gardening as a way of life

As of autumn 2015, 22 schools have expressed their wish to join the operation. Limagrain graciously made available to participating schools all the necessary to accompany them in their projects: seeds first, but also potting soil, gardening tools, natural products of soil fertilization and pest control of the garden. . Teaching kits were also distributed to teachers – almost identical to those distributed to French teachers participating in Gardening Week. These kits provide all the recommendations necessary for the creation of a vegetable garden: choice of species , preparation of the soil, sowing, fertilization and irrigation, fight against pests, crops.

800 children were able to work directly on the land. But 22,000 kindergarten and primary school children participated in the design of the project and were involved in its follow-up. The contest punctuated all the school life 2015-2016. Because a kitchen garden project is biology to explain the life cycle of a plant, but also reflections on respect for the environment, plastic arts with drawing to design the garden and then painting to illustrate blooms, mathematics for calculating space, etc. Gardening is an excellent opportunity to approach the traditional subjects of the teaching of children from a new angle …

Species from all over the world

What are the species that have been planted by the children? Aromas in shambles, vegetables such as eggplant, spinach, radish, tomato, cucumber, carrot, cabbage, pepper and leek, but also melon, strawberry, etc. The flowers friends of vegetables – nasturtiums, cosmos, marigolds and marigolds -, natural allies of the fight against the aphids and the caries, were also very appreciated.

The choice of species was an opportunity to do some history and geography … Indeed, the plants of the garden come from the 4 corners of the world. Eggplant, carrot, salad, onion and radish come from Asia or the Middle East. Tomatoes, zucchini or green beans come from the American continent. Africa and the Mediterranean basin have seen the birth of leek, fennel, cucumber or beet. As for Europe, it is the land of origin only rare vegetables such as broccoli and some roots (turnip, rutabaga). It is the history of the selection of plants, their adaptation to soils and climates, which allowed to create diversity in our gardens and our plates. This is how the history of plant breeding, which began with the Neolithic.

Svalbard: Noah’s ark of seeds

It may seem paradoxical to keep seeds in a safe frozen 1000 km from the North Pole. In this place where nothing grows, the seed bank of Svalbard, located in Norway, is mainly a “rescue bank”! 

In situ and ex situ collections

More than 1,500 gene banks store seeds or vegetative organs around the world. From the smallest to the largest, some serve as “memory” for breeders and others respond to urgent requests from farmers for the next harvest.

In situ banks are seed stocks kept close to production sites. The largest international centers are located in endemic areas. Thus, 120,000 rice varieties are kept at IRRI in the Philippines, 27,000 maize at CYMMIT in Mexico, 7,000 potato at CIP in Peru. Many smaller collections exist, but many are fragile in size, operation and resources. They may be located in politically unstable areas or in a threatened environment.

Keeping the seeds out of their center of origin: ex situ collections

In order to save seeds for the long term and for global food security, the idea of collecting a collection on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen was born in 2008. The Svalbard World Nature Reserve is now funded by foundations. , States and private bodies under the scientific supervision of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), GCIAR (Advisory Group for Agricultural Research) and other institutions through the Crop Trust Diversity Trust created in 2004.

A temperature always negative

It is naturally cold and dry in this safe installed in the permafrost, where three cold rooms have been dug. The temperature is lowered to -18 ° C and the seeds are protected in envelopes placed in boxes and kept on shelves. The seeds then have an extremely reduced metabolism and their conservation is maximal.

A storage capacity of 4.5 million seeds

Currently, the Svalbard genebank comprises 820,000 batches (samples) from all over the world of major food grains (maize, rice, wheat, barley, sorghum …) and vegetables(eggplant, lettuce …) and tubers (potato…).

A perfect model of long-term preservation?

From a technical point of view, the world seed reserve Svalbard is a guarantee of the durability of the collections, because the site is frozen permanently. There is no need to worry about melting glaciers or rising sea levels, or any tectonic activity. Likewise, the administration and international management of the Svalbard Center is a guarantee of continuity and security. But by choosing public-private funding, the center is subject to criticism of access to seeds. There is a data bank for international exchanges, but the Center is not organized to respond to individual or urgent requests from farmers. This “ark of Noah’s seeds” is complementary to the banks in situ, hoping that it will not need to replace them!  

Cucurbitaceae: a generous and colorful botanical family

Since the 90s, in France we associate the period of All Saints to Halloween, a party from across the Atlantic. On the evening of October 31, everything is good to be scared: skeletons, ghosts, witches, zombies … and grinning pumpkins! Squash and pumpkins are indeed kings in this season: their colors brighten market stalls, and pumpkin dug and illuminated with a candle has become the symbol of Halloween (thus reliving the Irish legend of Jack O’Lantern). But by the way, is it a pumpkin, a squash or a pumpkin? Rediscover Cucurbitaceae, from the most known to the most unexpected …

Cucurbitaceae, a very varied family

Cucurbitaceae form a vast botanical family. With 130 genera, 800 species and some 10,000 varieties , it offers an impressive diversity of fruits: squash, zucchini, pumpkins, pumpkins, pumpkins, pastries, colocynth, calabashes, cucumbers, melons and watermelons … Not easy to see clearly … How to classify all this little world?

Only 6 of 130 genera are widely grown in the world. The best known is the genus Cucurbita , which is also the most diversified in terms of edible fruit varieties: there are all shapes, sizes, colors, and for all tastes! It comes in 5 species, including:

  • Cucurbita pepo : zucchini, squash (Vegetable Spaghetti, Jasmine of Vendée …), pumpkins (Pumpkin of Touraine), pastries, colocynth, pomarines.
  • Cucurbita moschata : butternut squash and all the varieties that come from it, whose flesh is sweet (Doubeurre, Butternut, Sucrine of Berry, Nice long …).
  • Cucurbita maxima : pumpkins (Atlantic Giant which holds the size record, Bright Red of Etampes, Hungarian Blue, Galeuse of Eysines …), pumpkins and giraumons.
  • Cucurbita ficifolia : mention the squash of Siam, with black seeds.
  • Cucurbita argyrosperma : the squash of Mexico, little known in Europe.

The other 5 genres are less diversified. The genus Citrullus includes watermelons ( Citrullus lanatus ), the genus Cucumis gathers cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ) and melons ( Cucumis melo ). As for the genus Sechium , it is that of chayotes ( Sechium edule ).

Decorative or utilitarian cucurbits

Some Cucurbitaceae have been cultivated for millennia to serve as containers: they are the famous gourds ( genus Lagenaria ), or calabashes. When drying, their skin becomes very hard: depending on the size and shape of the fruit, they can serve as a spoon, a cup, a bottle, a vase, a float, a musical instrument … 

Another curiosity is the genus Luffa , in which the pulp of the fruit becomes dry and fibrous at maturity: the bark is removed to obtain a vegetable sponge (traditionally used for household chores … but also for skin care).

Other Cucurbitaceae are cultivated for their ornamental qualities: unusual shapes, bright and contrasting colors, and excellent preservation! There are dozens of varieties, different types of apartment: decorative calabashes (Squash Club Hercules, Caveman’s Club, Dipper, Cobra …), colocynth (Claws of the Devil, Bottle Squash …), or Cucumis with spiky fruits. thorns ( C. carolinus, C. longipes …).

Ancient and modern varieties

With squash and pumpkins, lovers of old varieties have something to celebrate! The seeds catalogs of course offer modern varieties, including F1 hybrids , but also a good range of old varieties. It must be said that the old varieties are numerous in squash and pumpkins, with nearly 60 “old varieties for amateur” listed on the French Official Catalog (it is less than for tomatoes, which holds the record in the material, but it is significantly more than for other plants in the garden).

Some culture tips

The cultivation of squash in the kitchen garden is easy! The only real constraint: to have room, especially for the “runner” varieties .

Sow them in 3-seeded pans, either in pots around mid-April (to be transplanted in May), or directly in place and in warm ground in mid-May, spacing them from 1 to 2 meters depending on the variety. Fill the planting holes with compost or well decomposed manure (squash and pumpkins are very greedy in manure!). Native to South and Central America, they are also chilly: book them a sunny and hot location. Water the seedlings regularly and watch for slugs. 

During the summer, water in dry weather, without wetting the foliage (risk of powdery mildew), and straw the soil. In September, when fruits are approaching ripeness, isolate them from soil moisture by placing them on a tile or flat stone. Harvest them before the frosts and keep them in a cool (10 ° C) and dry place. 

Note that Cucurbitaceae belonging to the same species hybridize very easily between them. If you intend to recover the seeds to sow the following year, beware of hybridizations! Do not grow different varieties of the same species.

Grass Cultivation – Today, grass makes life easier!

What a pleasure to find, at the awakening of spring, its dense lawn in the garden … Modern grass varieties simplify our life: less weeding, less mowing, fewer holes in the lawn

Grass to avoid weeding

With the ban on the use of synthetic plant protection products from 2019, if you are a gardener you will not be able to treat your lawn or your paths. Although it does not concern the installed lawns, it will remain the earth paths to weeding: how to do? “Rather than weeding mechanically or manually, or allow to develop a wild flora, a good idea is to prairie grass areas where we may be left without the invasion of unwanted grasses, advocates Jean-Marc Lecourt, president from the French Society of Turfgrass. If the soil is well prepared and its surface flat, with varieties having the crucial ability to quickly establish sodding increases the lift of the ground and may be suitable for walkways. He continues. 

It is an effective solution provided that the implantation is successful: prepare the soil well, but especially choose varieties that have been selected for their speed of growth at the start to occupy the soil before the other plants, for their density and density. disease resistance . It exists !

No beautiful lawns without adequate varieties

The varieties in quality turf are all included in the lists of the catalog official of speciesand varieties catalog which guarantees their authenticity. Their different abilities are noted by an independent official body: the Geves (Variety and Seed Study and Control Group ). 

Each registered variety is the culmination of 15 years of research! “Varieties are increasingly selected for specific uses,” explains Jean-Marc Lecourt. We do not expect the same thing from plants in decorative lawns, public recreation fields or sports fields. In the trade you find associations of species studied for infinitely varied uses. “.  There are quality labels corresponding to the various uses.

So many unsuspected differences between varieties

Do you want to sow a lawn where you will play football? “Certain varieties really have the capacity to better resist trampling or tearing, which is a crucial criterion for sports fields,”says Vincent Gensollen, head of the Geves grass variety registration testing network. In the same way, the density of the foliage and the intensity of the grass green vary according to the variety. Another key criterion is the time to regrow. Varieties are indeed selected for their very slow growth. It becomes possible to mow, for example, only 2 to 3 times a year in communal areas such as cemeteries where one seeks precisely to limit maintenance.“For two years, the criterion of grass growth, determining the number of clippings, is noted in the registration tests, says Vincent Gensollen. It was measured that between old and new varieties of English ryegrass and tall fescue, the main species of turf, the volume of mowing was halved! “. 

Even if species associations are sown, all their components must be of quality. “We do not make good mixtures with bad constituents, says our specialist. We therefore study the varieties and not the associations because we can not test the innumerable cases of figure, but our notations inform well on the quality of the components. “.In the face of the disappearance of phytosanitary products, it becomes even more important to choose varieties of high quality turf. Regarding the purchase of seeds , Vincent Gensollen explains: “A low-end turf will be sparse and sensitive to diseases: this is explained by the existence of an antagonism between the development of the vegetative system of the plant and that of the reproductive parts. , the seeds. A variety that is good for the grass is therefore often bad seed, and the price of seed is affected. “ .

Isabelle Ferrière

The inscription of lawn varieties, a lever for quality

There are 222 varieties of 13 species of turf grass on lists of Catalog French official. To be registered, the varieties must bring a more, on precise criteria, compared to the well-known control varieties. Candidate varieties are cultivated and logged for 3 years in the official National Test Network, which is under the Ministry of Agriculture. This network comprises 13 sites in France and in other European countries representative of our different climates.

The criteria relate to agronomic and environmental value. Are noted: the installation, the behavior vis-à-vis the trampling, that vis-à-vis the diseases, the color of the foliage, the density of the grass, the fineness of the foliage, the slow growth, the durability and, finally, the overall aesthetic aspect.

All evaluation results are published on the website, to help you choose your varieties or find information about those in your mix.

Quality protein maize for improving the nutritional status

ABCofAgri Publish Code: ABCAG269811A

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Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third major cereal crop in the world after wheat and rice and is used for both livestock feed and human consumption. Maize contribute 15% of the world’s protein and 19% of the calories derived from food cops. Pregnant women, lactating mothers, and young children are particularly the most affected.  In India, maize is the third important food crop after rice and wheat. At national level the area under this crop is 9.43 million ha, production 24.26 million tonnes and productivity is 2583 kg/ha. In Jharkhand it is cultivated over 0.2569 million ha production 0.517 million tonnes and productivity 2012 kg/ha (Annual report maize, 2016). To alleviate malnutrition, protein content in maize by increasing the prolamine (zein) fraction in the maize endosperm. With its high content of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, some of the important vitamins and minerals, maize acquired a well deserved reputation as a poor man’s nutricerra for millions of people in developing countries. Cereals proteins, however, have poor nutritional value for monogastric animals, including humans, because of reduced content of essential amino acids such as lysine tryptophan and threonine. From the nutritional point of view lysine is the most limiting amino acid in the maize endosperm protein followed by tryptophan. The need to genetically ameliorate the poor nutritional value of cereals grains such as maize has been recognized for a long time.

Quality protein maize which is nutritionally superior over the normal size is the new dynamics to signify its importance not only for food and nutritional security but also for quality feed for poultry, piggery and animal sector as well. Quality protein maize has specific features of having balanced amount of amino acids with high content of lysine and tryptophan and low content of leucine and isoleucine. The balanced proportion of all these essential amino acids in quality protein maize enhances the biological value of protein. The biological value of protein in QPM is just double than that of normal maize protein which is very close to the milk protein as the biological value of milk and QPM proteins are 90 and 80% respectively. Whereas it is less than 50% in normal maize protein. There are 9 QPM hybrids of different color had been developed and released in India. The production technologies is same as normal grain maize except isolation as to maintain the purity of QPM, it should be grown in isolation with normal maize.

The QPM research was started long back during 1970’s, but gained momentum during 1990s with continuous breeding efforts on development of high yielding hard endosperm modified Opaque-2 maize germplasm by International centre for maize and wheat improvement (CIMMYT). The Directorate of Maize Research (DMR), New Delhi developed first QPM composite variety Shakti-1 with 0.63 per cent tryptophan in the year 1997. The QPM research gained further momentum by launch of National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP) on QPM in 1998 by ICAR. Rajendra agricultural university (RAU), Pusa during 2001 released first QPM three way cross hybrid Shaktiman-1 and first QPM single cross hybrid, Shaktiman-2 during 2004. Choudhary charan singh Haryana agricultural university (CCSHAU), Karnal released another QPM single cross hybrid, HQPM-1 which is the first yellow grain QPM single cross hybrid released for its cultivation across the country. Later in the series of QPM, Shaktiman-3 and Shaktiman-4 released by RAU, Pusa in 2006. In 2007 another QPM single cross hybrid HQPM-5 from CCSHAU, Karnal was released for cultivation. Further two new single cross QPM hybrids i.e. HQPM-7 from CCSHAU, Karnal and Vivek QPM-9 from Vivekanand parvatiya krishi anusandhan shala (VPKAS), Almora has been identified during 2008. Opaque -2 (o2) is a natural recessive mutation in the transcriptional activator conditioning negative expression of zein protein.

The QPM has got special distinction among the cereal due to presence of high amount of lysine and tryptophan, therefore QPM can be utilized for diversified purposes in food and nutritional security. It is also useful in fulfilling the protein requirement of different sections of society to prevent malnutrition. QPM with high carbohydrates, fats, better quality protein, some of vitamins and minerals, it is nutritious feed for poultry, livestock, swine, fish, etc. Use of QPM as feed leads to early development of broilers, save energy and feed and also extra cost on lysine and tryptophan.

The nutritious product developed from QPM can replace fancied and highly priced industrial foods. These products can be developed in villages and thus could be a great source of rural entrepreneurship QPM based rural industries has a wider scope for employment generation and rural prosperity.

Himanshu Raj1, Anjna Rani Minz2 and Satish Kumar Pandey3
  1. Himanshu Raj, Senior Research Fellow, ICAR-IINRG, Namkum, Ranchi 
  2. Anjna Rani Minz, Mangement Trainee, Food Corporation of India, Ranchi 
  3. Satish Kumar Pandey, Senior Research fellow, ICAR-IINRG, Namkum, Ranchi

Are our foods rich enough in nutrients?

Rest assured: our food always contains, in sufficient quantity, the nutrients that our body needs! A short tour of the food components.

Nutrient contents vary

The components vary a lot from one species to another: between rapeseed and wheat seeds, for example, the former are much richer in fat components, the latter in starch. 
And within the same species, there are strong differences in grades. Thus, the Ciqual table of nutritional composition of food ( see the dedicated website of ANSES ) indicates an average calcium content of raw kale of 185 mg / 100g fresh product, but with a minimum of 44 and a maximum of 460 , a gap of more than 10 times! The raw carrot, for calcium always, oscillates between 9 and 44 mg / 100 g, with an average to 32.6. And so for all the products and the constituents analyzed: the minimum-maximum differences can be important.

Have grades changed?

“When we look at the composition tables of the 50s and the current tables, there is no change. The vitamin C levels of apples are the same in the past and today, “notes Catherine Renard, Director of UMR INRA-University of Avignon Safety and Quality of Plant-Based Products,” and when there are differences , as can be seen in iron, they remain anecdotal and can be explained in part by the methods of analysis, more precise today. 
A comparison of the 1960 and 2016 tables published in the journal of the Académie d’Agriculture shows that the average levels of fresh produce remained broadly stable from one component to another. There are sometimes some differences, more or less. Thus, wheats and cabbages are on average richer inprotein , while green beans and carrots are depleted. Carbohydrates have decreased in some vegetables like tomato, lettuce, green beans and cabbage. The magnesium and potassium contents are remarkably stable. As for vitamin C, it did not vary except in carrots. Beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A, has only increased in the current varieties of leek and lettuce (X3).

Why so many variations?

“Those responsible for the nutrient richness are first and foremost varieties, ” explains Catherine Renard, “and then plays the cross-product effect of the maturity of the product at harvest with the storage method.” Concentrations can increase or decrease with the maturation of plant organs: the vitamin C content is twice as high in tomatoes, strawberries, peppers, immature beans as ripe, but for peas it is the opposite. 
During storage the contents, especially of vitamins, decrease rapidly, but not always: in spinach leaves vitamin C drops very quickly, while in the carrot, which is a root, storage organ, it does not move : everything depends on the component and the plant. Processing canned, frozen or cooked dishes also alters certain nutrients. 
The year effect is essential: according to the climatic conditions, for the same variety the results are extremely varied. The intensity of the fertilization, the sunshine, the temperature, play a lot on the contents of the product. “This set of factors is very complex to unwind! In any case, what is important is to “consume as much as possible seasonal products being attentive to their conservation,” concludes Catherine Renard.

What role does selection play?

Comparisons show that there has been no upheaval since the 1960s. In tomato, the concentrations of vitamin C and carotenoids are identical in ancient and modern varieties * grown at the same time. 
But when compounds are linked to unfavorable characteristics, they were counter-selected, as in the 50’s cucurbitacin responsible for cucumber bitterness. The protein content of wheat has been increased because it is an important criterion selected for breadmaking. The inheritance of these characters is complex because they often depend on several genes. Research is continuing to better understand the genes involved, how they work, and to be able to propose improved varieties with higher levels of compounds that are desirable for health or, on the contrary, without undesirable substances such as allergens.

Rapeseed oil, better for health

Rapeseed oil is one of the most consumed in France. In connection with the advice of nutritionists, its composition and its content of “good” fatty acids (omega 3) has been improved by selection, for the sake of our cardiovascular and neurological systems. Similarly, the sulfur compounds have been greatly reduced, so as to make the residue of the pressing of the seed oil, called cake, more appetizing for the animals. It is thanks to this that the rapeseed crop has been able to develop and consumers benefit from a quality oil for their health.

Potatoes for all tastes and dishes

The potato remains the favourite vegetable of the French. Steamed, fried, fried, gratin Dauphinois, the potato is suitable for all types of cooking and recipes and it is a real concentrate of energy and vitamins.

 The potato does not know the crisis

Today, despite less consumption than 50 years ago, the potato remains a staple food in the French diet! They consume about 50kg each year, half of which is fresh and the other half processed.

Hundreds of varieties exist

There is not a potato but potatoes! 150 varieties are listed, adapted to the various methods of preparation. But there are mainly about twenty on stalls, classified according to their culinary use: potatoes with firm flesh, melting flesh, floury flesh and the original.

  • The firm-fleshed potatoes have a distinct taste and, by definition, a good resistance to cooking. They are ideal for cooking with steam or water and are particularly suitable for potatoes in field dress, in salads, sauteed or fried.
  • The early potatoes  , harvested early in the season, are melting and delicious in field dress or when browned in a pan.
  • Other varieties, floury flesh, are perfect for making crispy fries and low fat or creamy mash and good consistency. They are also suitable for soups or stews.
  • And then, there are the original, the unclassifiable by their color, their shape and place of production … The trend is to better communicate on the varieties in general and more particularly on the “original” with higher added value. 

When time is running out

Sometimes there is no time for homemade preparations. Industrialists have therefore developed a great diversity of dishes in which potatoes often occupy an important place. The varieties used in processing are not selected at random. Whether it is to produce potato flakes, chips, french fries … frozen, canned, vacuum packed …, each category requires potatoes with specific technical characteristics in dry matter, texture, size, coloring …

Uses in all fields …

The agri-food industry also uses a quarter of potatoes produced in France in the form of starch , that is to say starch. It is extracted from varieties called starch, specially selected for their high dry starch content. Starch is used in soups, charcuteries, or sauces and is found in small quantities but in the majority of cooked dishes. Note that starch is also on the list of raw materials for paper, cardboard, chemistry, pharmaceuticals, the adhesive industry, cosmetics … 

Biodegradable plastics based on potatoes

Today, new markets are opening up for the production of starch potatoes, particularly in the manufacture of biomaterials. 100% biodegradable plastics from potatoes or corn replace the production of petrochemical plastics, to the delight of the environment!

A little history of the potato

Originating from the Andean Cordillera, the potato is a recent starch on the scale of our European diet.

Good conservation, at the time of the conquistadores, it allows the crews of the Spanish ships to feed during the crossing … and thus to join the old Europe.

At the end of the eighteenth century, the potato became the main agricultural production of Germany, and spread to Austria, Switzerland, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Sweden and all the regions located in the East of France. It helps to stem the frequent famines associated with poor harvests of wheat.

Potatoes in salad

For a potato salad, opt for a firm-fleshed variety. After steaming, they are left to warm slowly before peeling and slicing.

A drizzle of olive oil, a few drops of balsamic vinegar, a little salt and pepper from the mill, some anchovies, finely chopped chives … and voila!

Why do spaghetti not stick anymore?

Malaise in Italian kitchens … Our charming neighbors are no longer the only holders of art and how to master the cooking of pasta! Because this operation is now available to everyone, whether you are a talented cook or beginner. Decryption of this phenomenon.

The evolution of industrial processes has allowed some advances such as the reduction of cooking time – sometimes as short today as for a boiled egg! – But the most spectacular progress over the last thirty years has come from  breeders  and their work on  durum varieties . 

Pasta does not grow on trees, it’s well known. But we sometimes forget that they are made from durum wheat. It is even one of the most common forms of consumption of this cereal. Their quality is expressed through many factors such as cooking time, the amount of water absorbed during cooking, texture after cooking (firmness, elasticity), presentation, color, aroma and taste. sure.

Pasta too cooked, no more panic!

Let’s dive some spaghetti into boiling water. They will not only maintain a good resistance to cooking but also to overcooking. What to stay zen in case of unexpected phone call! They will also be very pleasant in the mouth because their texture will be firm and supple. 

These culinary qualities are directly derived from research on varieties . Because durum wheat contains naturally and in large quantities gluten, a set of proteins whose properties – viscoelasticity for example – play a key role at the time of cooking. 

Only here, the quality of gluten varies from one variety to another. All durum varieties are not equivalent. It was therefore necessary to select specific varieties containing a gluten of the desired quality. The block of pasta all stuck together and overcooked now belongs to the past, for the greatest relief of students!

Yellow pasta or pasta with eggs?

When you are fond of pasta, color is important. We prefer to buy pasta clear and amber yellow, which is associated quite naturally with the amount of eggs per kilo. In fact the yellow index depends on pigments common to the carrot and which are present in semolina from durum wheat. To appetite, research has also been conducted on varieties rich in pigments.

Some cooking tips

So, it will be understood, good pasta, it is first of all good varieties of durum wheat. After that, no need to be an Italian expert. You need a big pan with a lot of salt and boiling water. It’s chemical, the pasta needs to be seized, so that the gluten can coagulate quickly and prevent the starch from spilling into the water, making the pasta soft and sticky. We monitor the cooking time … and enjoy!

How to avoid mistakes of taste?

Before marketing, expert tasters judge the condition of the pasta to be twice as long as the normal cooking time. Pasta should never become sticky and disintegrate. Second test, experts note the color of the raw dough under a standardized supermarket light. Finally, last test, they must taste pasta cooked in a normal time, and this in the dark. They can thus focus on essential qualities for consumers: texture and taste; and give their final mark.

Why durum wheat is not a tender

Durum wheat is grown to make semolina used to make cookies, cakes, couscous and pasta. But can we make in the fields the difference between durum wheat and soft wheat? Yes, when the crops are in spikes. The durum wheat ear is stiffer, more erect, and is bristling with a colorful beard. In addition, durum wheat grains are different from those of soft wheat. They are bigger, denser, more glassy. Otherwise, durum wheat is grown like soft wheat, but not in all regions. It is found mainly in the South, as well as towards the Center and the Paris Basin. France and Greece produce durum wheat, but on surfaces inferior to those cultivated in Italy.

Shallots: a research at the forefront … of taste

To raise the flavor of a fish or give a touch of originality to a green salad, what better than a finely chopped shallot? But gray shallot or pink shallot?

Shallot “gardens” and shallots “fields”

The gray shallot e is most appreciated by gourmets. It is grown mainly in vegetable gardens. It can be kept only a few weeks after its harvest in the fall. Hence the difficulty of finding out of season.

The pink or Jersey shallot constitutes the bulk of French vegetable production. Indeed, this shallot can be kept 6 months without problem which allows a more flexible marketing. It is therefore the subject of all the attention of researchers who are dedicated to the improvement of  shallot varieties . Research that requires a lot of perseverance and great technicality …

The meaning of progress

The selection of shallot began in the early 1970s at INRA. The creation of new varietieswas then essentially oriented towards agronomic objectives. The first thing was to obtain plants without flowering. Indeed, the appearance of a flowering stalk reduces the yield of bulbs. Low susceptibility to diseases and parasites, or regular yield, were also taken into account.

A more attractive shallot

Today, in addition to these agronomic aspects of the characteristics associated with the marketing and use by gardeners who wish to plant shallots. We seek to obtain attractive presentation bulbs, firm, well colored flesh and which are well preserved. Another desired property is a high dry matter content (ie low water content bulbs) because the taste value seems to be correlated with it.

Innovate by increasing the aromatic intensity

To create new varieties of shallot, researchers proceed by marriage of unpublished couples. As the genetic diversity within the Jersey shallot is quite limited, they achieve successful crosses with other botanical species of Allium with new and interesting qualities. With the gray shallot for example, which brings a strong aromatic intensity, but also with a species native to the foothills of the Himalayas which has a good resistance to diseases.

The shallot is good for your health

Like garlic or onion, shallot is known for its protective effects against certain cancers, particularly digestive. It has indeed a strong antioxidant activity thanks to a high content of flavonoids. It also has a significant amount of beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and is a good source of vitamin B6, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium. In short, the shallot is surprisingly rich in vitamins and minerals.

The anecdotes of the shallot

The shallot has many local appellations . Depending on the region, it may be called Veal Head, Poitou Red, Chicken Leg, Turkey Leg, or Half-Long Pear.

The shallot has health benefits . It is rich in vitamins and minerals. It also promotes the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, and has digestive properties.

Put a shallot to grow in a glass of water. You will then be able to use its leaves to pleasantly replace the chives.

What is called shallot in Quebec actually corresponds to scallion or green onion. It is often called the true shallot “shallot”.

Shallot, a fragrance of history

The shallot was a sacred food among the Persians, Egyptians and Hebrews. It would have been brought back to France at the time of the Crusades, the city of Ascalon in Palestine, but this version does not make the unanimity of the historians …

The term “shallot”, which was written escaluigne (also eschalogne or escalone) in the twelfth century, will take its final form in the sixteenth century.

Today France is the leading producer of shallots in Europe with 2,000 producers on 2,000 hectares. 40,000 tonnes of shallot are produced each year.

Beet, a serious competitor for the cane

Sugar is systematically associated with cane, this plant widely cultivated in the tropical zones of our Globe. It is the world’s leading source of sugar production. But the sugar beet intends to exist on this market…

A plant from home

The sugar beet is characterized by a white flesh, as well as a conical and fleshy root. It is in the root that sugar is stored. This is formed through photosynthesis, at the level of the bouquet of leaves, which will be more or less dense depending on the variety. We distinguish between sugar beet and vegetable beet (this beautiful red plant in our gardens!) And fodder beet (for livestock feed).

Unlike cane, which likes heat and humidity, sugar beet prefers temperate climates. Originally grown in Italy, it has established itself very well in France. Today, Hexagon is the world’s leading producer of beet sugar! 380,000 hectares of sugar beet are grown there by 26,000 farmers. For the transformation of the plant, sweets-distilleries and refineries mesh the territory …

A plant that has made progress

Until the beginning of the 19th century, cane was the only major source of sugar. According to the FAO, it still accounts for 70 to 80% of the world’s sugar production. The reason for this success is simple: the sugar content of cane is much denser than that of beet. That’s why plant breeding research is working to improve the potential of sugar beet. 

Researchers have thus allowed the twentieth century to increase by 50% the amount of sugar produced per hectare! Two axes were followed:

  • The increase in beet yield per hectare.
  • The improvement of the sugar content of the plant.

To impose yourself in front of the sugar cane

The end of the sugar quotas is announced for 2017 and, with it, the end of the guaranteed prices to beet growers. The competition with the cane will then be frontal … and maybe fatal! To continue to exist, beet has only one option: to offer a better yield of sugar. 

In this context, the aim of the Aker program is to double the annual growth rate of sugar yield / hectare by 2020. The program is led by a consortium of eleven partners, public bodies and private breeding companies. The means implemented are up to the challenge: 80 researchers, 20 million euros budget.

The little story of beet sugar

In the sixteenth century, the agronomist Olivier de Serres discovers that the beetroot, coming from Italy, can produce a syrup of sugar. But it was not until 1786 that a German chemist, Achard, succeeded in extracting sugar from the beet and solidifying it.

In the nineteenth century, beet will be grown for its sugar … In 1806, the sea blockade related to the conflict between French and English, leads to a shortage of sugar. Soon after, Benjamin Delessert succeeded in refining beet sugar industrially. The Legion of Honor is attributed to him by Napoleon who calls him “Baron of Empire”. In the wake, the head of state ordered the planting of 100,000 hectares of beets. This was the starting point of a great adventure, agronomic, industrial and economic.

Beet, a great sugar factory

Men do not make sugar, they extract it. The sugar of plants is composed of sucrose. During the day, through photosynthesis, plants accumulate the energy they use at night to make sugar in the leaves. Then the plants make reserves of sugar that they store in the stem for the cane and in the root for the beet. Thanks to the breedersyields have increased: from 28 tons in 1939 to 45 tons of beets per hectare at present (with yields between 30 to 65 tons). In the same way, beets are more and more sugar. A ton of sugar beet supplies about 140 kilos of sugar, up from 115 kilos a century ago. If you do the math, that’s 7 tonnes of sugar per hectare. It’s impressive to see the beet’s ability to make sugar with sunshine!

Cane sugar

It is part of the history of civilizations. The Greeks already know the cane. The sugar that is extracted is then considered a medicine. In the seventh century, the Arabs introduced this culture into the Mediterranean countries. In the twelfth century, the Crusaders brought back sugar cane from Palestine and Syria. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it is Venice, then Portugal (Madeira) and the Balearic Islands that allow the development of sugar cane. Then the implantation of Europeans in the New World leads to a considerable expansion of sugar cane in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, Paraguay, Guadeloupe and Martinique.

Plants that quench

What is there in common between fruit and vegetable juices, vegetable milk, beer or distilled alcohol? Answer: These drinks come from plants before being more or less transformed. 
Drinking is an imperative need. We use for nutritional and physiological reasons about two liters of water a day that we compensate with food and drink: water, fruit juice, vegetable or animal milk … With great moderation, we can also consume alcoholic beverages that are derived from fermentation plants followed or not distillation. 

Fruit and vegetable juices, health elixirs

Juices extracted from fresh, raw vegetables provide our cells and tissues with all the nutrients they need. They allow to fill up with vitamins, minerals and sugars, because their assimilation is direct and fast. Hence the craze for “juice detox” to be in shape!

Better, and this is a point of agreement between scientists and doctors, fruits and vegetables have a protective effect on most cancers, especially those of the upper aerodigestive tract (esophagus, oral cavity, larynx, pharynx) stomach, lung, colon and rectum.

The benefits of plant milks on health

Vegetable milks have become over time the favorite drinks of vegetarians and now hold a place of choice in the organic shops and dietary rays of supermarkets. If soy milk is the best known, there are other plant milks such as milk milks (rice, oats, spelled, rye …), milks of almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts or chestnuts.

These milks are usually consumed as substitutes for cow’s milk. They are usually easier to assimilate by the body. They are low in saturated fat and do not contain lactose. Soymilk, for example, contains vegetable proteins of good biological value and essential amino acids that allow the prevention of osteoporosis (and randomly reduce the symptoms of menopause) but especially that lower blood cholesterol. By cons, this soy milk can cause allergic risks and inactivate some treatments. It is not recommended for pregnant women and infants.

Malt made from barley seeds that have been sprouted and dried to produce beer

A good beer is above all … a good variety and a certified seed ! Varietal research in malting barley has been a French strength for decades. Every year, maltsters and brewers from France publish a list of ” varietiespreferred by their technological requirements. To make 1 liter of beer, it takes on average 200 grams of malt, about 120 grams of malting barley. All the art of the malteur lies in the choice of barley varieties to produce the 300 beers inventoried in France. The beer has had historically cosmetic and medicinal virtues. In the nineteenth century, beer was still manufactured and sold in pharmacies, with added plants of various virtues. Today, beer is sold over-the-counter, but it is recommended for adults to drink in moderation, like any alcoholic beverage.

Fermented and distilled drinks

Other plants, still grains or starchy foods, can also be fermented if they contain a sufficient source of starch or fermentable sugars. Japanese sake is a “beer” of rice, but its alcohol content is closer to that of wines (14 to 17%). The pulque, drink of Mexican origin, results from the fermentation of the sweet sap of a fatty plant (the agave).

Fermented drinks can be distilled to extract alcohol and other volatile substances. Natural spirits may be the product of the distillation of common fermented beverages (cognac, armagnac or brandy from wine, calvados from cider, whiskey from beer or tequila from pulque), but many of them come from fermented vegetable products for the sole purpose of distilling them. This is the case of the fermentation of cherries (kirsch), sugar cane (rum), corn (bourbon) and potato (vodka).

History: beer, secret of monks …

The first sip of beer goes back to ancient times. In Egypt, it constituted, with bread, the normal meal of the peasant and the slave. Later in Gaul, we ate a lot of beer or beer. But it is the monks who will give the beer its nobility. It was in the Middle Ages that the beer flowed for the first time in the abbeys. The monks began brewing their beer for two reasons: the fear of drinking water that carried disease and deadly epidemics and the law of hospitality to pilgrims. The monks will conscientiously collect all the ancient traditions of manufacture and gradually improve the raw materials and brewing. They will especially introduce another key element of the current beer recipe: hops, which will bring flavor,

Some anecdotes …

Hergé, precursor of a brand of whiskey In the adventures of Tintin, Captain Haddock, who drinks quite easily (!), Has a favorite whiskey, “Loch Lomond”. This brand did not exist when the designer Hergé directed it for the first time. It was not until 1965, a year after its appearance in the comic strip, that the distillery of the same name was created. This distillery is unique in Scotland, producing both grain whiskey and malt whiskey at the same site. The cognac of peace On November 11, 1918, the armistice ended the First World War. The official signature took place in the train stationed in the forest of Compiegne, Rethondes. Marshal Foch represented the French army, General Staff Von Winterfeld, the German army. The story goes that a cognac was served after the signature, sealing a (provisional) peace between France and Germany. Did you know ? In Armagnac, the Romans introduced the vineyard, the Arabs the still and the Celts were. From the meeting of these three cultures Armagnac was born. Biofuel from whiskey Rolling cars with whiskey? This could be a possibility. Researchers at the Biofuels Research Center at Edinburgh’s Napier University (Scotland) filed a patent for a new biofuel made from whiskey in 2010. Scientists have in fact used two main by-products of the famous Scottish drink: the “pot ale”, a liquid residue remaining in the copper still after the first distillation, and the “draff”, which comes from the brewing barley and water. Paying cash“Kash” is what was called the beers used to pay stonecutters working on the pyramids in ancient Egypt. This word gave “cash” in English and generated the expression “pay cash”. “You can judge a good beer in one sip, but it is prudent to check your first impression.” (Czech proverb)

Introduction to Sweet Corn

Crunchy and juicy, what a treat that sweet corn! It is consumed in France since the 1970s, canned or frozen. It is also consumed as our American friends grilled corn. It is obtained from varieties selected and crossed specially for human consumption.

A vegetable more and more sweet

Sweet corn brings together special varieties , in which glucose does not turn into starch too quickly. These are recessive genes that regulate this peculiarity; the sweet corn crop must be isolated from the maize crop for the animals so that there are no untimely crosses . There are several kinds of sweet corn: the normal or standard, the “super sweet” and even the United States the new “triple sweet” … each variety being sweeter than the previous one.

To each his preference

In Western Europe, the consumer prefers the “super sweet” while the Eastern Europeans stay on the standard. The “super sweet” and “triple sweet” are typically the result of the genetic improvement of sweet corn, to completely meet the tastes of different countries. They correspond to crossbreeds of varieties .

Since the world’s cultivated areas are not very important, for historical and mean reasons, all the varietal creation is done in the United States. The new varieties are tested very early in France, for at least 3 to 4 years before the marketing of the varieties. The main selection criterion is yield and  disease tolerance of maize. Of course, the grains must be healthy.

Tastes evolve, the breeder responds

For the improvement of varieties , canned and frozen industrialists and  breeders  work in partnership. The industrialists follow consumer panels that test the varieties: do we want more crunchy, crunchier, juicier grains, bigger or smaller, of a stronger yellow, more brilliant? All these criteria interact with each other and the sensation of pleasant sweet taste does not depend only on the sugar content. Intervenes the juice content, the fineness of the grain envelope … The breeder to find the right balance.

Qualities that are preserved

The varieties are also tested to ensure that canning is to say, the heat sterilization, does not alter their qualities or color. Because the food industry has its own requirements. The maize must have a very cylindrical shape, with well-aligned and regular grains, to extract the maximum of grains. Thanks to the selection work, we now have a wide range of varieties with varied precociousness, to spread the crops and the supply of the plant.

The grain is processed very quickly, within 3-4 hours after harvest. “Super sweet” varieties are preferred because they avoid adding sugar. The level of sugar also depends on the date of harvest and maturity of the grain.

French sweet corn is exported well

The climate of south-west France is very favourable to the cultivation of sweetcorn, mainly in Aquitaine. Thanks to the varietal improvement, sweet corn is also possible in the Center. Quality product, it is almost entirely exported in appertised form, especially to Northern Europe. Because if sweet corn is the fourth vegetable consumed canned in France, its overall consumption remains quite low: 1kg / year / inhabitant against more than 10 kg / year / inhabitant in the United States and Canada! But fresh corn (on the cob) is beginning to seduce the French, especially in the big cities.  

The composition of sweet corn

Sweet corn, Zea mays saccharata, belongs to the same family as grain corn. It differs in composition because it has one or more genes that slow down the conversion of carbohydrates into starch. It is harvested when its water content is around 70%. It is rich in carbohydrates, fiber and vitamins, especially of group B.

Average levels of sweetcorn:

  • Water : 70% – By comparison, fresh vegetables : 90-95% Kilocalories / 100 g net: 96 Kcal
  • Carbohydrates in% of the total weight: 18% (of which more than half in sucrose) – fresh vegetables: 2 to 4%
  • Fibers : 4%
  • Proteins : 3.3%
  • Fat : 1.2 g / 100 g – essential fatty acids – fresh vegetables: 0.1 to 0.2 g / 100g
  • Vitamins : B1 – B2 – B3 – B5 – B6 – B9: 2 to 3 times more than in fresh vegetables, C – E
  • Minerals : 800 mg / 100 g of which 270 of potassium, 100 of phosphorus and 33 of magnesium
  • Trace elements : manganese, molybdenum, copper, nickel, iodine, selenium

We were told beautiful salads…

Kinky, stubborn, headed, white … An evocative and poetic vocabulary for one of the most common vegetables on our table: salad! At the 9th edition of the Days of biodiversity organized by the Gnis the unknown biodiversity of the lettuce was honored, through observation plots presented by Richard FOURNAGE (HM Clause) followed by a tasting!

A long selection through the centuries

“Lettuce is originally a small salad with jagged, bitter leaves that looked like dandelions and grew in vacant lots, meadows and rocky areas,” explains Richard Fournage. “Moreover, the Romans avoided eating the leaves, but used the seeds for its medicinal properties and drew an edible oil.” Only in the Middle Ages, in Europe, do we see the first salads on the tables, raw or cooked. By dint of selection, varieties with broad leaves much less bitter that rose less seed had emerged.“But it was not until the last century, especially with seed companies like Clause, Vilmorin or Tézier, that the number of lettuce varieties will grow rapidly”, continues Richard Fournage. Appeared lettuce more head or red, but also new varieties such as Iceberg lettuce for sales in bags or varieties with thicker leaves such as Sucrines or Rougette.

Today, 300 species of lettuce are registered inOfficial French catalog of species and varieties and more than 1500 in the European Catalog. 

Lettuce, a champion of biodiversity in the kitchen garden

“I present four large families of lettuce,” says Richard Fournage. On 30 mini plots are presented beautiful salads to eat:

  • Batavia-type lettuce, with capped or open-port, which themselves are declined according to many morphotypes as: 
    1. The red batavia, that is to say with high concentration of anthocyanins which brings an original color salad 
    2. Ice Queen batavia that resists well to the cold of autumn 
    3. Iceberg batavia very suitable for salad mixtures sold in sachets. It has become the best-selling salad in the USA and Spain 
    4. The Lollo rossa, native to Italy, whose deep red foliage is very curly, grows back after each harvest.
  • Head lettuce, with tender leaves, the queen of markets and the most popular on our table and the oak leaf, not very dense but compact found in a range of colors from green to dark red.
  • Lettuces called “fat” with firmer leaves, embossed and turgid. Several varieties exist of all the colors as the hearts of sucrine, the rougettes which constitute niche markets not insignificant, in particular in the Europe of the South.
  • The Roman, more and more appreciated, because it keeps very well.

Adaptation to tastes and uses

Lettuces have adapted to the taste of consumers (color, texture, morphological aspect, bitterness …), but also to culinary uses and conservation and distribution needs. With the explosion of bagged salad consumption, varieties such as Iceberg lettuce or Romaine now dominate some markets. In France, dappled lettuce and oak leaves, however, remain the queens of markets and stalls of fruits and vegetables in supermarkets.

A continual and necessary agronomic adaptation

“Big changes in the improvement of lettuce, certainly less visible for the consumer, are disease resistance , the possibility of staggering the staggering of seedlings and resistance to high temperatures,” adds Richard Fournage. Lettuces now grow in winter, with varietiesadapted to short days, low light and low temperature to consume fresh salad all year round. “Most varieties in the catalog are also resistant against bream, fungus responsible for mildew. But the fight is never definitely won and new bream strains manage to get around this resistance. Continuous improvement, year after year, is therefore necessary … “.

A big work is thus provided by the breeders to look for new varieties which answer to the criteria of presentation (volume, port, color …) but also of rusticity, resistance to the necroses or the fight against an early seed rise .

“Once crosses (manuals) made between varieties, the most original lettuce and meeting a maximum of improvement criteria will be selected and entered in the Catalog. Only then can they be marketed to market gardeners and gardeners, “ concludes our guide.

ICT Revolution in Indian Farming System

“Information and Communication Technology” is big revolution in Indian farming community regarding the information about Agriculture production and market linkages between farmer and Mandis. It is great initiative which has been taken by the government of India. In 2013 the revenue of the Indian ICT sector was valued at US$ 108 billion and it is expected to reach the US$ 225 billion landmark by 2020. The industry performance this year demonstrated the sector’s ability to innovate and deliver differently, in order to maintain the growth trajectory.

It is part of e-agriculture which is developing and applying innovative ways to use ICTS in the rural farmer or marginal farmers which helps to link them with APMC. The importance of agricultural extension in providing the relevant information, technology and knowledge to the farmers and creating the enabling environment to increase production and productivity is quite clear, as mandated under the National Agricultural Extension Policy (NAEP). In this context, ICT in Farming is used as an umbrella term encompassing of all information and communication technologies including devices, networks, mobiles, services and applications; these range from innovative Internet-era technologies and sensors to other preexisting aids such as fixed telephones, televisions, radios and satellites.the ICT concept to reduce gap between government and farmers, it is sustainable development diction which has been taken by the government of India for farmer development with the help of IT sector The ICT is mainly focusing on rural domain of India. The ICT concept take one step ahead to our farming community regarding the distribution of correct information to get benefit which comes from Indian Government for Farmer. The General Directorate of Extension and Agriculture Development (GDEAD) has been developing many ICT innovations in linking research-extension-education for agriculture, which will create a common architecture for digital information aggregation and services in the context of agricultural practices involving multiple institutions and stakeholders with widely varying requirements and criteria for usefulness or effectiveness. ICT helps farmers to increase the income in the form of distribution of correct farming information. Currently our Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi is talking about Farmer’s double Income, this ICT could be the first step of Farmer’s double Income for Indian farmers. This initiative would be help full for horticulture and agriculture crop producer in the form of double income of Indian farmers. The information and communication technology is creating job opportunities for private sector as well as Government sector for IT specialist and good Agriculture Extension officers who can work with ICT in form of rural farmer development in India, ICT works on the farmers requirement on the better information regarding new technology, good agriculture practices, Mandi rate, fertilizer and pest control related information which ICT gives to Farmer. Some private organization like Godrej Agrovet, Syngenta, and TechnoServe gives basic information regarding Mandi price and some information. Some other organization which are helping to develop Indian farmers.

History of ICT in India:

The IT sector has helped transform India’s image to a global IT player and been a driver of higher education. The industry is expected to reach a revenue of USD 225 billion in 2020. Today, the revenue of the sector is USD 108 billion. The distribution between the sub-sectors is that telecom services accounts for 44 % of revenue, IT services accounts for 24 %, devices are responsible for 17 % of the revenue, while enterprise software only accounts for 7 % of total revenue but has the highest growth rate of 6, 8 %. In 2013, the overall spending grew with 4, 2 %. However, it is expected the growth will decline to 3, 8 % in 2014. The IT sector contributed with 8% of the GDP in India, a significant increase from 1, 2% in 1998 India is a key player in the global ICT world. India’s total IT industry (including hardware) share in the global market stands at 9%. In the IT segment the share is 6% while in the ICTS space the share is 2%. India’s IT and BPO sector exports are expected to grow by 12-14 per cent in FY14 to touch USD 84 billion – USD 87 billion. In 2012-13, it is estimated that IT exports reached 75 billion which was a 10% increase. The growth of ICT sector helps in growth of GDP in India, the form of exports and imports of agriculture commodities its helps to rural farmers about the current price of near market and farmers have option about the price on which farmers easily they can compare the price of different Mandi. There is some challenges which is affecting to ICT in farming during the poor networking and some individual problem which farmers was facing like no electricity poor connectivity with Telecom Company these are the major problems which affects the steps of ICT in India. ICT is big step which has been taken by the our government, where farmers are getting basic information, and as all though some other sector is developing drastically and our agriculture sector how it could be the last in 21st century. There are major challenges or risk are involved in this term but it would be good for future of Indian Farmers.

The Camargue feeds us with rice

Eat more complex sugars and fewer simple sugars! This is the advice that comes in the mouths of all health professionals. But in which category is rice placed? This cereal contains starch, and therefore complex sugars. It should therefore eat very regularly, because its satiating power avoids snacking. In parallel with this appetite suppressant, rice has many other health benefits …

To each rice its qualities!

Supermarkets are full of different types of rice. Each rice has real peculiarities … Brown rice is the most nutritious (115 calories per 100g). He owns the most fiber (1.5 g of fiber per 100 g) because only the inedible shell of the grain has been removed. In the white rice category (109 calories and 0.4 g of fiber per 100 g), parboiled white rice is more nutritionally interesting than the others because the parboiling stage migrates certain nutrients to the center of the grain: we are less likely to lose them later! Minute rice seems to be the least advantageous, because of the many treatments that are used and which alter or remove its compounds. It will therefore be necessary to choose between nutrition and practicality!

The health authorities advise, for their part, to focus on the consumption of whole grains. It could be linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, some cancers and obesity, because the sound and the germ contain in large quantities fiber, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. At present, the French eat an average of 4.5 kg of rice a year. What about Burma, where its consumption reaches 188 kg per inhabitant! 

Last key point: the protein content of the rice grain. This depends on the variety used, the spacing of plants in cultivation and the use of nitrogen fertilizers. Similarly, constraints such as drought, salinity, high or low temperature, diseases, etc. can increase the protein content of some rice varieties . 

The Camargue, 98% of French rice production

But before it is mainly the variety of rice that determines its composition. In France, the French Rice Center (CFR) works to select the varieties adapted to growing conditions and user requirements. A mission that leads each year to the production of one to two new varieties. All varieties of the Mediterranean type listed in the French Catalog of Varieties were selected by the CFR. And they are especially adapted to the Camargue climate, because this region provides 98% of the rice production in France!

Irrigated rice cultivation accounts for about 12,000 hectares … and only 260 of them are dedicated to seed production . The reason: the rice intended for propagation can not return to the same plot for five years to avoid contamination, which guarantees the purity of the seeds.

How is rice produced?

Its impoundment and sowing take place from mid-April or mid-May. Rice is sown on the fly, with 160 to 220 kg of seed per hectare. Then, the crucial stage of the production concerns the emergence: on 700 to 900 seeds launched per m², only 250 plants will develop. This is why vigor at emergence is a particularly sought-after trait in the selection phase of new rice varieties .

During rice growth, competing with weeds is the biggest barrier to good yield. It is extremely difficult to control the growth of these unwanted plants. Finally, at the end of August, flowering occurs. The plots, which were immersed in five to ten centimeters, are dried three weeks to one month before the harvest, which takes place from September 15 to October 15. This occurs when the rice grains have reached a moisture level of 20 to 24%.

Regarding yield, the food rice is between 70 to 92 net quintals after sorting operations, depending on the variety. Recall that today, we cultivate two species of rice, Oryza sativa, or Asian rice, and Oryza glaberrima, or African rice. Nevertheless, the Asian species is the only species to be cultivated on a large scale in countries with a favorable climate. It is therefore also the most cultivated in Africa!

The origins of domestic rice

China and India are fighting over the paternity of domestic rice. At the end of 2010, new data attracted the attention of archaeologists. An article in La Recherche detailed the approach of experts to determine the date when wild rice cultivation began, and when it was completely transformed into domestic rice. By studying very finely the spikelet, that is to say the small spike which contains the flower of the rice, in the remains of plants found in China, south of Shanghai, the researchers were able to follow the domestication of the rice: it has become more and more frequent from 4,900 to 4,600 BC. Finally, around 4,500 to 4,000 BC. J. – C., the rice is definitely domesticated in China and cultivated intensively.

On the Indian side, the oldest rice is currently dated to 6,500 BC. BC, which seems to give them the greatest seniority, but it is necessary to wait 2,500 to 2,000 BC. In order to have tangible proof that this rice is well cultivated and domesticated. The domestication in India and China could have occurred in parallel because the sub- speciesIndian and Chinese were hybridized early in the domestication process. Indeed, they share key mutations that have appeared since these rice became domestic: one of them allowed that the grain of rice does not become detached from the plant once ripe, which makes it possible to harvest it more easily, and another has generated a upright and high domestic rice plant, unlike wild rice which is lower and deployed.