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Name of the author : Y. JANAKI RAMULU

Chairperson : Dr. T. RAMESH
Year of submission : 2016

The present investigation entitled “Identification of cotton growth stages and growth pattern studies in cotton genotypes” was conducted at the college farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, during kharif 2015-2016. The field trial was conducted following split plot design with three replications and three cotton genotypes viz. ADB-542, Narasimha and Deltapine 9121 as main plots, three different levels of spacings viz. 75 x 10, 60 x 10 cm and 45 x 10 cm as sub plots. To determine the duration for growth phases in cotton, requirement for photo induction of flowering to maturity the growth phases, yield attributes and yield. In this experiment, phenological observations (days to squaring, flowering, boll initiation and peak boll burst), growing degree days require ment for (squaring, flowering and boll initiation), morphological parameters (plant height, leaf area, number of monopodia, number of sympodia and dry matter production per plant), physiological parameters (leaf pigments, spad chlorophyll meter readings (SCMR), photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll stability index and proline), growth parameters (crop growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, specific leaf area and specific leaf weight) and yield parameters (number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield, lint yield and seed index) were evaluated at three different growth stages.
Results of phenological characteristics showed that in 75 x 10 cm spacing, for square, flower and boll initiation minimum days were required (42.1, 66.8 and 93.4 respectively). Among the genotypes Deltapine 9121 recorded early square, flower and boll initiation i.e at 41.1, 66.6 and 92.3 days respectively. Minimum days were required for peak boll burst in Deltapine 9121 at 75 x 10 cm (114.0 days). In 75 x 10 cm minimum growing degree days (GDD) were required for squaring (740), flowering (1148) and boll initiation (1588). Among the genotypes Deltapine 9121 recorded minimum GDD for early squaring (722), flowering (1144) and boll initiation (1570).
Morphological parameters showed that Deltapine 9121 recorded maximum plant height (78.1 cm) in 75 x 10 cm spacing and Narasimha recorded minimum plant height (48.3 cm) in 45 x 10 cm at boll initiation stage. Significantly maximum leaf area (3489cm2) in 75 x 10 cm was recorded in Deltapine 9121 while, Narasimha showed minimum leaf area at boll initiation stage (773 cm2). Deltapine 9121 showed significantly maximum number of sympodia at 75 x 10 cm spacing (17.3), while, Narasimha at 45 x 10 cm spacing recorded minimum sympodia (11.6). Deltapine 9121 also showed significantly maximum number of monopodia at 75 x 10 cm spacing (1.3). Deltapine 9121 at 75 x 10 cm spacing had recorded maximum dry matter production (90.1 g).
In respect of physiological parameters Deltapine 9121 recorded maximum leaf chl-a (1.11 mg g-1), chl-b (1.77 mg g-1), chl-t (3.11 mg g-1) and carotenoids (0.68 mg g1), SCMR values (29.1), photosynthetic rate (23.6 μ mol CO2 m-2s-1), chlorophyllstability index (49.3 %) and proline (933 μg g-1 fresh weight) in 75 x 10 cm spacing at boll initiation stage. While, Narasimha recorded minimum leaf chl-a (0.43 mg g-1), chlb (0.46 mg g-1), chl-t (0.91 mg g-1) and carotenoids (0.20 mg g-1), SCMR values (39.2), photosynthetic rate (13.2 μ mol CO2 m-2s-1), chlorophyll stability index (25.2 %) andproline (281 μg g-1 fresh weight) in 45 x 10 cm respectively at boll initiation stage.
At 60-90 DAS the crop growth rate (CGR) was significantly maximum in Deltapine 9121 at 75 x 10 cm spacing (1.81 g day-1). Narasimha at 60 x 10 cm spacing showed maximum RGR i.e. 0.037 g g-1 day-1 at 40-60 DAS. At 40-60 DAS maximumNAR (0.001 g cm-2-1) was recorded in 75 x 10 cm spacing in genotype Narasimha(0.001 g cm-2d-1), 60 x 10 cm spacing all the tested genotypes and in 45 x 10 cm spacing all the tested genotypes recorded the similar rate of assimilates. Specific leafarea was maximum in Deltapine 9121 at 75 x 10 cm spacing (126 cm2g-1) and minimum in Narasimha at 75 x 10 cm spacing (80 cm2
g-1) at 90 DAS. Specific leaf weight was maximum in Narasimha at 75 x 10 cm spacing (0.012 g cm-2) and minimum in Deltapine 9121 at 75 x 10 cm spacing (0.008 g cm-2
) at 90 DAS.
Deltapine 9121 at 75 x 10 cm spacing recorded maximum number of bolls i.e. 7.9, boll weight 2.90 g, seed cotton yield 23.17 g plant-1 and lint yield 826 kg ha-1


Insecticides / Pesticides Registered under section 9(3) of the Insecticides Act, 1968 for use in India

(As on 18/09/2018)   


S.No. Name of the Pesticide
1. 2,4-D Amine salt
2. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid
3. Abamectin*
4. Acephate
5. Acetamiprid
6. Afidopyropen
7. Alachlor
8. Allethrin
9. Alphacypermethrin
10. Alphanaphthyl Acetic Acid
11. Aluminium Phosphide
12. Ametroctradin
13. Ametryn
14. Ampelomyces quisqualis
15. Anilophos
16. Atrazine
17. Aureofungin
18. Azadirachtin (Neem Products)
19. Azimsulfuron
20. Azoxystrobin
21. Bacillus sphaericus
22. Bacillus subtillus
23. Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae
24. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis
25. Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki
26. Barium Carbonate
27. Beauveria bassiana
28. Benalaxyl
29. Benalaxyl M
30. Bendiocarb
31. Benfuracarb
32. Benomyl
33. Bensulfuron Methyl
34. Bentazone
35. Beta Cyfluthrin
36. Bifenazate
37. Bifenthrin
38. Bispyribac Sodium
39. Bitertanol
40. Boscalid+ Pyraclostrobin
41. Bromadiolone
42. Buprofezin
43. Butachlor
44. Captan
45. Carbaryl
46. Carbendazim
47. Carbofuran
48. Carbosulfan
49. Carboxin
50. Carfentrazone Ethyl
51. Carpropamid
52. Cartap Hydrochloride
53. Chlorantraniliprole
54. Chlorfenopyr
55. Chlorfluazuron
56. Chlorimuron ethyl
57. Chlormequat Chloride (CCC)
58. Chlorothalonil
59. Chlorpropham
60. Chlorpyriphos
61. Chlorpyriphos Methyl
62. Chlothianidin
63. Chromafenozide
64. Cinmethylene
65. Clodinafop-propargyl
66. Clodinafop-propargyl+Sodium acifluorfen
67. Clomazone
68. Clothianidin
69. Copper Hydroxide
70. Copper Oxychloride
71. Copper Sulphate
72. Coumachlor
73. Coumatetralyl
74. Cuprous Oxide
75. Cyantraniliprole
76. Cyazofamid
77. Cyflumetofen
78. Cyfluthrin
79. Cyhalofop-butyl
80. Cymoxanil
81. Cypermethrin
82. Cyphenothrin
83. Dazomet
84. Deltamethrin (Decamethrin)
85. Diafenthiuron
86. Diazinon
87. Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT)
88. Dichloropropene and Dichloropropane mixure (DD mixure)
89. Dichlorvos (DDVP)
90. Diclofop-Methyl
91. Diclosulam
92. Dicofol
93. Difenoconazole
94. Diflubenzuron
95. Dimethoate
96. Dimethomorph
97. Dinocap
98. Dinotefuron
99. Dithianon
100. Diuron
101. Dodine
102. D-trans Allethrin
103. Edifenphos
104. Emamectin Benzoate
105. Epoxyconazole
106. Ethephon
107. Ethion
108. Ethiprole
109. Ethofenprox (Etofenprox)
110. Ethoxysulfuron
111. Ethylene Dichloride and Carbon Tetrachloride mixture (EDCT Mixture 3:1)
112. Etoxazole(FI)
113. Famoxadone
114. Fenamidone
115. Fenarimol
116. Fenazaquin
117. Fenitrothion
118. Fenobucarb (BPMC)
119. Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl
120. Fenpropathrin
121. Fenpyroximate
122. Fenthion
123. Fenvalerate
124. Fipronil
125. Flonicamid
126. Fluazifop-p-butyl
127. Flubendiamide
128.  Flucetosulfuron
129. Fluchloralin
130. Flufenacet
131. Flufenoxuron
132. Flufenzine
133. Flumioxazin
134. Fluopicolide
135. Fluopyram and its metabolite
136. Flupyradifurone*
137. Flusilazole
138. Fluvalinate
139. Fluxapyroxad
140. Fomesafen
141. Forchlorfenuron
142. Fosetyl-Al
143. Gibberellic Acid
144. Glufosinate Ammonium
145. Glyphosate
146. Haloxyfop-R-methyl 10.55%.EC(FI)
147. Helosulfuron methyl
148. Hexaconazole
149. Hexazinone
150. Hexythiazox
151. Hydrogen Cyanamide
152. Imazamox
153. Imazethapyr
154. Imidacloprid
155. Imiprothrin
156. Indoxacarb
157.  Indaziflam + Glyphosate ammonium (FI)
158. Iprobenfos (Kitazin)
159. Iprodione
160. Iprovalicarb
161. Isoprothiolane
162. Isoproturon
163. Kasugamycin
164. Kresoxim Methyl
165. Lambdacyhalothrin
166. Lime Sulphur
167. Linuron
168. Lufenuron
169. Magnesium Phosphide Plates
170. Malathion
171. Mancozeb
172. Mandipropamid
173. Mepiquate Chloride
174. Meptyldiinocop
175. Mesosulfuron Methyl + Iodosulfuron Methyl Sodium
176. Metaflumizone
177. Metalaxyl
178. Metalaxyl-M
179. Metaldehyde
180. Metarhizium anisopliae
181. Methabenzthiazuron
182. Methomyl
183. Methoxy Ethyl Mercury Chloride (MEMC)
184. Methyl Bromide
185. Methyl Chlorophenoxy Acetic Acid (MCPA)
186. Methyl Parathion
187. Metiram
188. Metofluthrin
189. Metolachlor
190. Metrafenone
191. Metribuzin
192. Metsulfuron Methyl
193. Milbemectin
194. Monocrotophos
195. Myclobutanil
196. Novaluron
197. Nuclear polyhyderosis virus of Helicoverpa armigera
198. Nuclear polyhyderosis virus of Spodoptera litura
199. Orthosulfamuron
200. Oxadiargyl
201. Oxadiazon
202. Oxathiapiprolin
203. Oxycarboxin
204. Oxydemeton-Methyl
205. Oxyfluorfen
206. Paclobutrazol
207. Paraquat dichloride
208. Penoxasulam
209. Penconazole
210. Pencycuron
211. Pendimethalin
212. Penflufen*
213. Penoxsulam
214. Permethrin
215. Phenthoate
216. Phorate
217. Phosalone
218. Phosphamidon
219. Picoxystrobin
220. Pinoxaden
221. Prallethrin
222. Pretilachlor
223. Primiphos-methyl
224. Profenophos
225. Prohexadione Calcium
226. Propamocarb hydrochloride*
227. Propanil
228. Propaquizafop
229. Propergite
230. Propetamphos
231. Propiconazole
232. Propineb
233. Propoxur
234. Pseudomonas fluorescens
235. Pymetrozin (FI), TIM
236. Pyraclostrobin
237. Pyraclostrobin+Epoxiconazole
238. Pyrazosulfuron ethyl
239. Pyrethrin (pyrethrum )
240. Pyridalyl
241. Pyriproxyfen
242. Pyrithiobac sodium
243. Quinalphos
244. Quizalofop ethyl
245. Quizalofop-P-tefuryl
246. S-bioallethrin
247. Sodium Cyanide
248. Sodium paranitro phinolate
249. Spinetoram
250. Spirotetramat
251. Spinosad
252. Spiromesifen
253. Streptomycin + Tetracycline
254. Sulfentrazone
255. sulfosulfuron
256. Sulfoxaflor
257. sulphur
258. Tebuconazole
259. Tembotrione
260. Temephos
261. Tetraconazole (FI)
262. Thiacloprid
263. Thifluzamide
264. Thiobencarb (Benthiocarb)
265. Thiocyclam Hydrogen oxalate
266. Thiodicarb
267. Thiomethoxain
268. Thiometon
269. Thiophanate-Methyl
270. Thiram
271. Tolfenpyrad
272. Topramezone
273. Transfluthrin
274. Triacontanol
275. Triadimefon
276. Triallate
277. Triasulfuron
278. Triazophos
279. Trichlorfon
280. Trichoderma harzianum
281. Trichoderma Viride
282. Tricyclazole
283. Tridemorph
284. Triflumezopyrim
285. Trifloxistrobin
286. Trifluralin
287. Validamycin
288. Verticillium lecanii
289. Zinc Phosphide
290. Zineb
291. Ziram






(As on 30th September, 2018)




A. Pesticides Banned for manufacture, import and use .
1. Aldicarb    (vide S.O. 682 (E) dated 17th July 2001)
2. Aldrin
3. Benzene Hexachloride
4. Benomyl (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
5. Calcium Cyanide
6. Carbaryl (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
7. Chlorbenzilate (vide S.O. 682 (E) dated 17th July 2001)
8. Chlordane
9. Chlorofenvinphos
10. Copper Acetoarsenite
11. Diazinon (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
12. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) (vide S.O. 569 (E) dated 25th July 1989)
13. Dieldrin  (vide S.O. 682 (E) dated 17th July 2001)
14. Endosulfron (vide ad-Interim order of the Supreme Court of India in the Writ Petition (Civil) No. 213 of 2011 dated 13th May, 2011 and finally  disposed of dated 10th January, 2017)
15. Endrin
16. Ethyl Mercury Chloride
17. Ethyl Parathion
18. Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) (vide S.O. 682 (E) dated 17th July 2001)
19. Fenarimol (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
20. Fenthion (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
21. Heptachlor
22. Lindane (Gamma-HCH)
23. Linuron (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
24. Maleic Hydrazide  (vide S.O. 682 (E) dated 17th July 2001)
25. Menazon
26. Methoxy Ethyl Mercury Chloride (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
27. Methyl Parathion (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
28. Metoxuron
29. Nitrofen
30. Paraquat Dimethyl Sulphate
31. Pentachloro Nitrobenzene (PCNB) (vide S.O. 569 (E) dated 25th July 1989)
32. Pentachlorophenol
33. Phenyl Mercury Acetate
34. Sodium Cyanide ( banned for Insecticidal purpose only vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
35. Sodium Methane Arsonate
36. Tetradifon
37 Thiometon (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
38. Toxaphene(Camphechlor) (vide S.O. 569 (E) dated 25th July 1989)
39. Tridemorph (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)
40. Trichloro acetic acid (TCA) (vide S.O. 682 (E) dated 17th July 2001)
B. Pesticide formulations banned for import, manufacture and use
1. Carbofuron 50% SP (vide S.O. 678 (E) dated 17th July 2001)
2. Methomyl 12.5% L
3. Methomyl 24% formulation
4. Phosphamidon 85% SL
C. Pesticide / Pesticide formulations banned for use but continued to manufacture for export
1. Captafol 80% Powder (vide S.O. 679 (E) dated 17th July 2001)
2. Nicotin Sulfate



Pesticides Withdrawn 

(Withdrawal may become inoperative as soon as required complete data as per the guidelines is generated and submitted by the Pesticides Industry to the Government and  accepted  by the Registration Committee.     (S.O 915(E) dated 15th Jun,2006)

1. Dalapon
2. Ferbam
3. Formothion
4. Nickel Chloride
5. Paradichlorobenzene (PDCB)
6. Simazine
7. Sirmate (S.O. 2485 (E) dated 24th September 2014)
8. Warfarin (vide S.O. 915 (E) dated 15th June 2006)



S.No. Name of Pesticides
1. 2,4, 5-T
2. Ammonium Sulphamate
3. Azinphos Ethyl
4. Azinphos Methyl
5. Binapacryl
6. Calcium Arsenate
7. Carbophenothion
8. Chinomethionate (Morestan)
9. Dicrotophos
10. EPN
11. Fentin Acetate
12. Fentin Hydroxide
13. Lead Arsenate
14. Leptophos (Phosvel)
15. Mephosfolan
16. Mevinphos (Phosdrin)
17. Thiodemeton / Disulfoton
18. Vamidothion





S.No. Name of Pesticides Details of Restrictions
1. Aluminium Phosphide The Pest Control Operations with Aluminium Phosphide may be undertaken only by Govt./Govt. undertakings / Govt. Organizations / pest control operators under the strict supervision of Govt. Experts or experts whose expertise is approved by the Plant Protection Advisor to Govt. of India except 1Aluminium Phosphide 15 % 12 g tablet and 2Aluminum Phosphide 6 % tablet. [RC decision circular F No. 14-11(2)-CIR-II (Vol. II) dated 21-09-1984 and G.S.R. 371(E) dated 20th may 1999]. 1Decision of 282nd RC held on 02-11-2007 and, 2Decision of 326th RC held on 15-02-2012.


The production, marketing and use of Aluminium Phosphide tube packs with a capacity of 10 and 20 tablets of 3 g each of Aluminium Phosphide are banned completely. (S.O.677 (E) dated 17thJuly, 2001)

2. Captafol The use of Captafol as foliar spray is banned. Captafol shall be used only as seed dresser.

(S.O.569 (E) dated 25thJuly, 1989)


The manufacture of Captafol 80 % powder for dry seed treatment (DS) is banned for use in the country except manufacture for export.

(S.O.679 (E) dated 17thJuly, 2001)


3. Cypermethrin Cypermethrin 3 % Smoke Generator is to be used only through Pest Control Operators and not allowed to be used by the General Public. [Order of Hon,ble

High Court of Delhi in WP(C) 10052 of 2009 dated 1407-2009 and LPA-429/2009 dated 08-09-2009]


4. Dazomet The use of Dazomet is not permitted on Tea.

(S.O.3006 (E) dated 31st Dec, 2008)


5. Diazinon Diazinon is banned for use in agriculture except for household use.

(S.O.45 (E) dated 08th Jan, 2008)


6. Dichloro Diphenyl

Trichloroethane (DDT)

The use of DDT for the domestic Public Health Programme is restricted up to 10,000 Metric Tonnes per annum, except in case of any major outbreak of epidemic. M/s Hindustan Insecticides Ltd., the sole manufacturer of DDT in the country may manufactureDDT for export to other countries for use in vector control for public health purpose. The export of DDT to Parties and State non-Parties shall be strictly in accordance with the paragraph 2(b) article 3 of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

(S.O.295 (E) dated 8th March, 2006)


Use of DDT in Agriculture is withdrawn. In very special circumstances warranting the use of DDT for plant protection work, the state or central Govt. may purchase it directly from M/s Hindustan Insecticides Ltd. to be used under expert Governmental supervision.

(S.O.378 (E) dated 26thMay, 1989)


7. Fenitrothion The use of Fenitrothion is banned in Agriculture except for locust control in scheduled desert area and public health.

(S.O.706 (E) dated 03rdMay, 2007)



8. Fenthion The use of Fenthion is banned in Agriculture except for locust control, household and public health.

(S.O.46 (E) dated 08th Jan, 2008)


9. Methoxy Ethyl Mercuric

Chloride (MEMC)



The use of MEMC is banned completely except for seed treatment of potato and sugarcane.

(S.O.681 (E) dated 17thJuly, 2001)



10 Methyl Bromide Methyl Bromide may be used only by Govt./Govt. undertakings/Govt. Organizations / Pest control operators under the strict supervision of Govt. Experts or Experts whose expertise is approved by the Plant Protection Advisor to Govt. of India.

[G.S.R.371 (E) dated 20thMay, 1999 and earlier RC decision]


11 Methyl Parathion Methyl Parathion 50 % EC and 2% DP formulations are banned for use on fruits and vegetables.

(S.O.680 (E) dated 17thJuly, 2001)


The use of Methyl Parathion is permitted only on those crops approved by the Registration Committee where honeybees are not acting as a pollinators. (S.O.658 (E) dated 04th September, 1992.)


12 Monocrotophos Monocrotophos is banned for use on vegetables.

(S.O.1482 (E) dated 10thOct, 2005)


13. Trifluralin The use of Trifluralin is banned in agricultural except for used in wheat with the precaution not  to be used near water bodies being toxic to aquatic organism  (vide S.O 3951(E) dated 8th August, 2018)



Updated on 18.09.2018


S. No. Name of the Pesticides Formulation registered No. of formulation
1. 2 ,4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid (2,4-D Sodium Amine and Ester Salt a) 2, 4-D Sodium Salt used as Tech a.i. 80% w/w min. 1
b) 2,4-D Amine Salt 58% SL 22.5% SL 2
c) 2,4-D Ethyl Ester 38% EC, 4.5%  Gr., 20%WP, 3
2. Abamectin 1.9%EC, 1.9%SC 2
3. Acephate 75% SP, 95%SG 2
4. Acetamiprid 20 SP 1
5. Afidopyropen 50 g/l DC (FI) 1
6. Alachlor 50%EC, 10% Gr 2
7. Allethrin 0.5% Coil, 4% Mat, 0.5% Aer., 3.6% L, 0.2% & 0.02% Coil 6
8. Alphacypermethrin 10% EC, 5% WP, 0.5% Chalk, 10% SC, 0.1%RTU, 0.55 % LLIBN, 0.667% LLIN, 0.66% W/W LLIN 8
9. Alphanaphthyl Acetic Acid 4.5% Sol. 1
10. Aluminium phosphide *(R) 56% Tab, 56% Powder,77.5% Gr., 6% Tab 4
11. Ampliomycesquisqualis 2.00%WP 1
12. Anilofos 30% EC, 18% EC 2
13. Ametryn 80%WG (FI) 1
14. Atrazine 50% WP 1
15. Aureofungin 46.15% SP 1
16. Azadirachtin (neem products) 25%, 10%, 0.03% EC, 0.1% EC, 0.15% EC, 5% EC, 0.3%EC, 15%  extract  concentrâtes, 1% EC, 0.1% Gr, 0.15%Gr 11
17. Azimsulfuron 50% DF (F.I.) 1
18. Azoxystrobin 23% SC (FI) ,23% SC( FIM) 2
19. Bacillussubtillis 2.0% AS 1
20. Bacillus  thuringiensis  var. sphaericus 1.3% FC 1
21. Bacillus thuringiensis  var. galleriae 1.3% FC 1
22. Bacillus thuringiensis  var. israelensis Liquid &WP formulations, 5% AS, 12% AS, 5.0 % WP 3
23. Bacillus thuringiensis  var. kurstaki 5% WP, 2.5% As, 0.5% WP, 3.5% AS, 4
24. Barium Carbonate 1% P 1
25. Beauveriabassiana 1.15% WP, 1.0% WP,1.15%SC, 10% SC, 5.0% WP 5
26. Bendiocarb 80% WP 1
27. Benfuracarb 40%EC, 3.0% GR 2
28. Beta cyfluthrin 2.45% SC 1
29. Benomyl 50% WP 1
30. Bensulfuron Methyl 60% DF(FI) 1
31. Bentazone 480 g/l SL 1
32. Bifenazate 50% WP(FI)22.6% SC(FI) 2
33. Bifenthrin 10% EC, 2.5%EC,23.4%,MUP(Imp), 8% SC(FI), 0.05% MC(11 Hrs.), 10% WP,0.05%MC(8 hrs), 8% SC (FIM) 8
34. Bispyribac sodium 10% SC (FI), 10% w/v SC (FIM) 2
35. Bitertanol 25% WP 1
36. Bromadiolone 0.25% CB, 0.005% RB & 0.005% RB cake 3
37. Buprofezin 25% SC, 70 .0 % DF 2
38. Butachlor 50% EC, 5% Gr., 50% EW, 3
39. Captan 50% WP, 75% WP, 50% WDG 3
40. Carbaryl 5% DP, 10% DP, 50% WP, 85% WP, 4% Gr., 40% LV, 42% Flow 7
41. Carbendazim 25% DS, 50% WP, 46.27% SC, 5% Gr 4
42. Carbofuran 3% CG, 1
43. Carbosulfan 25% DS, 25% EC, 6% Gr. 3
44. Carboxin 75% WP 1
45. Carfentrazone-ethyl 40% EC, 40% DF(FI), 53%MUP(FI) 3
46. Carpropamid 27.8% SC 1
47. Cartap Hydrochloride 4% Gr., 50% SP, 75%SG 3
48. Chlopropham 50% HN 1
49. Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC, 0.4% Gr. 2
50. Chlorfenapyr 10% SC (FI) 1
51. Chlorfenuron 10%SC(FI) 1
52. Chlorfluazuron 5% EC w/w, 5% w/v, 5.4% EC(FI)&FIM 3
53. Chlorimuron ethyl 25% WP, 1
54. Chlormequat Chloride 50% Sol. 1
55. Chlorothalonil 75% WP 1
56. Chlorpyriphos 20% EC, 10% Gr,., 1.5% DP, 50% EC, 2% RTU 5
57. Chlorpyriphos Methyl 40% EC 1
58. Chromafenozide 80% WP 1
59. Cinmethylene 10% EC 1
60. Clodinafop-propargyl (Piroxofop-propinyl) 15% WP 1
61. Clomazone 50% EC 1
62. Clothianidin 50%WG(FI), 50% WG formulation 2
63. Copper Hydroxide 77% WP, 53.8% DF(FI) 2
64. Copper Oxychloride 50% WP, 40% Paste, 5% DP, 50 WG, 56% OP 5
65. Copper Sulphate Used as Tech98% equivalent to cooper content  25% w/w min., 2.62% SC 2
66. Coumachlor 0.5% CB, 0.025% RB 2
67. Coumatetralyl 0.75% TP, 0.037% Bait. 2
68. Cuprous Oxide 4% DP 1
69. Cyantraniliprole 10.26% OD 1
70. Cyazofamid 34.5% SC (FI) 1
71. Cyfluthrin 10% WP, 5% EW, 2
72. Cyflumetofen 20% SC 1
73. Cyhalofop-butyl 10% EC 1
74. Cymoxonil 80% WP 1
75. Cypermethrin 10% EC, 25% EC, 1% Chalk, 0.1% Aquous (HH), 0.25 DP, (3% Smoke Generator- to be used only through Pest Control Operators and not allowed to be used 6
76. Cyphenothrin 5% EC, 0.15% in combination as Aer. , 7.2% VP 3
77. Dazomet Dazomet Technical (soil Sterilant GR) not permitted on tea 1
78. Decamethrin (Deltamethrin) 2.5% Flow2.5% WP2.8% EC, 0.5% Chalk, 1.25% ULV, 25% Tab., 11% EC, 0.5% Tablet, 1.8% EC, 2%”w/w EW 10
79. Diafenthiuron 50% WP, 47.8% SC 2
80. Diazinon*R 25% Micro Encapsulation 1
81. Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT)*R 50% WP, 75% WP 2
82. Dichloropropene and Dichloropropanes mixture (DD Mixture) *(R) 1:1 1
83. Diclofop-methyl 28% EC 1
84. Diclosulam 84% WDG(FI) 1
85. Diclorvos (DDVP) 76% EC 1
86. Dicofol 18.5% EC 1
87. Difenoconazole 25% EC, 3% WS 2
88. Diflubenzuron 25% WP,2%Tab (FI) 2% Tab(FIM),2%Gr,(FI), 2% Gr(FIM) 5
89. Dimethoate 30% EC 1
90. Dimethomorph 50% WP 1
91. Dinotefuran 20% SG (F.I.) 1
92. Dinocap 48% EC 1
93. Dithianon 75% WP 1
94. Diuron 80% WP 1
95. Dodine 65% WP, 50% flow, 40% SC 3
96. D-trans allethrin 2% Mat, 0.1% coil (8hrs), 0.1% coil (12 hr.), 0.1% Coil(11hrs), 0.1% Coil (6hrs), 21.97% Mos. Mat 6
97. Edifenphos 50% EC 1
98. Emamectin Benzoate 5% SG (FI) & (FIM) , 1.9% EC, 0.1% Gel 3
99. Ethephon 39% SL, 10% Paste 2
100. Ethion 50% EC 1
101. Ethofenprox (Etofenprox) 10% EC 1
102. Ethoxysulfuron 10% EC, 15%WG(FI) 2
103. Ethylene Dichloride and Carbon Tetrachloride mixture (EDCT mixture 3: 1) 3:1 1
104. Etoxazole 10%SC(FI) 1
105. Fenarimol 12% EC 1
106. Fenazaquin 10 EC 1
107. Fenitrothion*R 2% Spray, 20% OL (banned in agriculture use except for locust in scheduled dessert area and public health) 2
108. Fenobucarb (BPMC) 50% EC 1
109. Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 10% EC, 9.3% EC,6.7%EC 3
110. Fenpropathrin 10% EC, 30% EC 2
111. Fenpyroximate 5% EC, 5% SC 2
112. Fenthion*R 2% Spray (banned in agriculture use except for locust in scheduled dessert area and public health) 1
113. Fenvalerate 0.4% DP, 20%EC 2
114. Fipronil 0.3% Gr., 5% SC, 0.05%Gel (Import)&FIM,80%WG (FI & FIM), 2.92% EC, 0.6% GR, 18.87% w/w SC 7
115. Flonicamide 50% WG 1
116. Fluazifop-p-butyl 13.4% EC 1
117. Flubendiamide 39.35%SC,20%WG 2
118. Flucetosulfuron 10% WG (FI) 1
119. Fluchloralin 45% EC 1
120. Flufenacet 60% WP 1
121. Flufenoxuron  10% DC 1
122. Flumioxazin 50.0% w/w SC 1
123. Flumite 20% SC 1
124. Fluopyram 34.48% SC 1
125. Flupyradiflurone 17.9% w/w SL 1
126. Flusilazole 40% EC 1
127. Fluvalinate 25% EC 1
128. Fluxapyroxad 333g/l FS (FI) 1
129. Forchlorfenuron (CPPU) 0.1%, 0.12% EC (FI) 2
130. Fosetyl-Al 80% WP 1
131. Gibberellic Acid Tech. P, 0.186% SP, 0.001% L, 40% WSG 4
132. Glufosinate Ammonium 13.5% SL, 50.0% TK 2
133. Glyphosate 41% SL, 20.2% SL, 5%SL 3
134. Glyphosate ammonium salt 71% SG, 5%SL(FI) 2
135. Halosulfuron methyl 75% WG(FI) 1
136. Haloxyfop R Methyl 10.5% EC (FI) 1
137. Hexaconazole 5% EC, 5% SC, 2% SC, 75% WG 4
138. Hexythiazox 5.45% EC 1
139. Hydrogen cyanamid  49% age, 50% SL 2
140. Imazethapyr 10% SL,  70% WG (FI) 2
141. Imidacloprid 17.8% SL, 70% WS, 48% FS, 30.5% SC, 2.5%Gel, 70%WG, 0.3% Gr, 0.5% RB(FI), 0.03 % w/w Gel(FI) 9
142. Imiprothrin 50% MUP 1
143. Indoxacarb 14.5% SC,15.8%EC 2
144. Iprobenfos (Kitazin) 48% EC, 17% Gr. 2
145. Iprodione 50% WP 1
146. Isoprothiolane 40% EC 1
147. Isoproturon 50% WP, 75% WP, 50% Flow 3
148. Kasugamycin 3% SL 1
149. Kresoxim-methyl 44.3%(500 g/l)SC 1
150. Lambda-cyhalothrin 2.43%CS ,5% EC, 10% WP, 2.5% EC, 0.5% Chalk, 22.8%CS(FI), 4.9%CS, 9.7% CS 8
151. Lime Sulphur 22% SC 1
152. Linuron 50% WP 1
153. Lufenuron 5.4% EC 1
154. Magnesium phosphide Plates 56%Min. Plates  (FI) &FIM 2
155. Malathion 5% DP, 25% WP, 50% EC, 0 .25% Spray and 96% ULV, 2% Spray, 5% Spray 7
156. Mancozeb 75% WP, 35% SC, 75%WG 3
157. Mandipropamid 23.4% SC 1
158. Mepiquat Chloride 5%AS, 50% TK 2
159. Metaflumizone 22% SC (FI) 1
160. Metalaxyl 35% WS, 40% WS 2
161. Metalaxyl – M 31.8% ES 1
162. Metaldehyde 2.5% DP 1
163. Metamitron 70%SC 1
164. MetarhiziumAnisopliae 1.15 % WP, 1.0% WP 2
165. Methabenzthiazuron 70% WP 1
166. Methomyl 40% SP 1
167. Methoxy ethyl mercury chloride *( R) 3% FS, 6% FS (completely banned except for seed treatment of Potato and sugarcane vide S.O. 681(E) dated 17th July 2001) 2
168. Methyl bromide *(R) 99% L, 98% L 2
169. Methyl chlorophenoxy acetic acid 40% SL or 40% As 1
170. Methyl Parathion *( R) 2% DP, 50% EC 2
171. Metiram 70% WG 1
172. Metofluthrin 0.005% Mosquito coil, 5%EC 2
173. Metolachlor 50% EC 1
174. Metrafenone 500g/l SC 1
175. Metribuzin 70% WP 1
176. Metsulfuron –methyl 20% WP, 20%WG(FI), 20 % WG FIM 3
177. Milbemectin 1%EC 1
178. Monocrotophos*R 36% SL, 15% w/w SG 2
179. Myclobutanil 15%SG,10%WP 2
180. Novaluron 10% EC (FI), 8.8% SC, 10% EC 3
181. NPV of Helicoverpaarmigera 0.43% AS, 2.0% AS. 0.5% AS 3
182. NPV of Spodopteralitura 0.5% AS 1
183. Orthosulfamuron 50% WG 1
184. Oxadiargyl 80% WP, 6% EC 2
185. Oxadiazon 25% EC 1
186. Oxycarboxin 20% EC 1
187. Oxydemeton-methyl 25% EC 1
188. Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC, 0.35% Gr. 2
189. Paclobutrazol 23% SC(FI), 23% SG 2
190. Paraquat dichloride 24% SL 1
191. Penconazole 10% EC 1
192. Pencycuron 22.9% SC 1
193. Pendimethalin 30% EC, 5% Gr.,38.7%CS(FI)&FIM 4
194. Penflufen 22.43% FS, 1
195. Penoxsulam 21.7% SC(FI), 2.67% OD(FI) 2
196. Permethrin 25% EC, 5% SG., 2% EC, LLIN 2% (FI) 4
197. Phenthoate 2% DP, 50% EC 2
198. Phorate 10% CG 1
199. Phosalone 4% DP, 35% EC 2
200. Phosphamidon 40% SL, 1
201. Picoxystrobin 22.52%SC(FI) 1
202. Pinoxaden 5.1% EC 1
203. Prallethrin 0.8% mat for 12 hours, 1% Mat, 0.8% L, 1.6% L, 0.5% mosquito coil, 0.04% Mosquito coil, 1.2% mat, 19% w/w VP, 0.6% mat, 2.4%LV 10
204. Pretilachlor 50% EC, 30.7% w/w EC,37.0%EW 3
205. Primiphos-methyl 25% WP, 50% EC, 1% Spray 3
206. Profenophos 50% EC 1
207. Prohexadione calcium 10% WG (FI) 1
208. Propanil 35% EC 1
209. Propaquizafop 10% EC(FI) 1
210. Propergite 57% EC 1
211. Propetamphos 20% EC, 1% Spray 2
212. Propiconazole 25% EC 1
213. Propineb 70% WP 1
214. Propoxur 20% EC, 1% Aer., 2% Aer. 1% HH Spray, 2% Bait 5
215. Pseudomonas flouroscens 0.5%WP,1.75%WP, 1%WP,1.5 %WP, 2.0% AS 5
216. Pymetrozine 50%WG(FI), 50% WG (FIM) 1
217. Pyrazosulfuron -ethyl 10% WP, 70% WDG(FI) 2
218. Pyrethrins (Pyrethrum) 0.2% DP, 2.5% EC, 0.05%  Spray, 0.2% PH, 2.0% EC 5
219. Pyridalyl 10% EC 1
220. Pyriproxifen 0.5% Gr(FI), 10%EC(FI), 10 % EC (FIM) 2
221. Pyrithiobac Sodium 10% EC 1
222. Pyraclostrobin 20% WG (FI), 100 g/l CS(FI) 1
223. Quinalphos 1.5% DP, 25% EC, 20% AF, 5%Gr 4
224. Quizalofop ethyl 10% EC, (FI), 5% EC (FI), 15.0% EC (FIM) 3
225. Quizalofop-p-tefuryl 4.41% EC (FI) 1
226. S-Bioallethrin 2.4% mat 1
227. Sodium Cyanide *( R) Used as Tech., 96% a.i. min 2
228. Sodium paranitrophenolate 1.8% SL(FI), 0.3% SL 2
229. Spinetoram 11.7% SC (FI) 1
230. Spinosad 45% SC, 2.5% SC 2
231. Spiromesifen 22.9% SC 1
232. Spirotetramat 15.31% OD 1
233. Streptomycin + Tetracycline 90: 10 SP 1
234. Sulfentrazone 39.6% SC 1
235. Sulfoxaflor 21.8% SC(FI) 21.8% SC(FI) 1
236. Sulfosulfuron 75% WG 1
237. Sulphur 85% DP, 80% WP, 40% SC, 80% WG/WDG , 55.16 SC (800 gm / L)40%WP,52%SC 7
238. Tebuconazole 2.5% DS, 2% DS, 25.9%EC, 25% WG, 5.36% FS, 5.4% (6.0%w/v) FS 6
239. Tembotrione 34.4% SC 1
240. Temephos 50% EC, 1% Sand Granules 2
241. Tetraconazole 3.8% EW (FI) 1
242. Thiacloprid 21.7% SC 1
243. Thifluzamide 24% SC 1
244. Thiobencarb(Benthiocarb) 50% EC, 10% Gr. 2
245. Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate 50% SP, 4% Gr 2
246. Thiodicarb 75% WP 1
247. Thiomethoxam 25% WG, 70% WS, 30%FS, 75% SG, 0.01% Gel bait 5
248. Thiometon 25% EC 1
249. Thiophanate-methyl 70% WP 1
250. Thiram 80% WP, 40% FS,75%WS 3
251. Tolfenpyrad 15%EC 1
252. Topramizone 336 g/l SC(FI) 1
253. Transfluthrin 0.88% Liquid Vaporiser, 0.03% Mos. Coil, 20%MV Gel(30 days mat tray), 1% FU, 1.2% LV, 1.6% LV, 12.0 % AE 7
254. Triadimefon 25% WP 1
255. Triallate 50% EC 1
256.   T Triasulfuron 20%WG 1
257. Triazophos 40% EC, 20% EC, 20.0% WG 3
258. Trichlorfon 5% DP, 50% EC, 5% Gr. 3
259. Trichodermaviride 1% WP (CFU 2×106 gm/min), 0.5% WP, 5%WP , 2
260. Tricodermaharzianum 0.5% WS, 2.0% WP, 1.0% WP 3
261. Tricodermaviride 1.0% WP 1
262. Tricontanol 0.05% EC, 0.1% EW, 0.05% GR 3
263. Tricyclazole 75% WP, 70% WG 2
264. Tridemorph 80% EC 1
265. Triflumezopyrim 10% SC 1
266. Trifluralin 48% EC 1
267. Validamycin 3% L 1
268. Verticilliumlecanii 1.15% WP 1
269. Verticilliumchlamydosporium 1.00 WP 1
270. Zinc Phosphide 2% RB, 80% Powder, 1% Bait 3
271. Zineb 75%WP,80% WP, 27% Colloidal Suspension 3
272. Ziram 80% WP, 27% SC 2
Total 555


*R:   Restricted


Sl. No. Combination Product Company
Acephate 50% + Bifenthrin 10% WDG M/s GSP Crop Science Ltd., Ahmedabad
Acephate 45% + Cypermethrin 5% DF M/s UPL Limited.
Acephate 25% + Fenvalerate 3% EC M/s Rallis India Ltd., Bangalore
Acephate 50% + Imidacloprid 1.8% SP M/s United Phosphorus Ltd.
Acephate 5% + Imidacloprid 1.1% SP M/s United Phosphorus Ltd.
Acetamiprid 0.4% + Chlorpyriphos 20% EC M/s Gharda Chemicals Ltd, Mumbai
Beta cyfluthrin 8.49% + Imidacloprid 19.81% OD M/s Bayer Crop Science Ltd , Mumbai
Buprofezin15% + Acephate35% WP M/s. MakhteshimAgan Pvt. Ltd.
Buprofezin 20% + Acephate 50% w/w WP M/s Rallis India Ltd., Bangalore
Buprofezin 9.0% + Acephate 24.0% w/w WP M/s Crystal Crop Protection Pvt. Ltd., Delhi
Buprofezin 22.0% + Fipronil 3.0% SC M/s Insecticides India Ltd.
Carbaryl 4% + Gamma BHC 4% Gr. M/s Avantis Crop Science India Ltd., Mumbai
Chlorantraniliprole 8.8% w/w + Thiamethoxam 17.5% w/w SC M/s Syngenta India Ltd.,
Chlorantraniliprole 9.3% + Lambda-cyhalothrin 4.6% ZC M/s. Syngenta India Ltd.,
Chloropyriphos 16% + Alphacypermethrin 1% EC M/s Acco Industries Ltd., Mumbai
Chlorpyriphos 50% + Cypermethrin 5% EC M/s De-Nocil, Mumbai
Cyfluthrin 0.025% + Tranfluthrin 0.04% M/s Bayer India
Cypermethrin 10% +Indoxacarb 10% EC M/s Gharda Chemicals Limited
Cypermethrin 3% + Quinalphos 20% EC M/s United Phosphorus Ltd., Mumbai
D-trans-allethrin 0.1% + Permethrin 0.03% +Imiprothroin 0.02% Aerosol M/s ReckttBenckisar (I) Ltd.
Deltamethrin 0.05% + Allethrin .04% L
Deltamethrin 0.75% +Endosulfan* 29.75% EC
Deltamethrin 1% + Triazophos 35% EC
Diazinon 0.5% + Pyrethrum 0.1% ready to use house hold
Diflubenzuron 20%+ Deltamethrin 2%SC M/s. Chemtura Chemicals India Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai
Emamectin benzoate 1.5% + Fipronil 3.5% SC M/s Crystal crop Protection Pvt. Ltd., Delhi
Emamectin benzoate 3.0% + Thiamethoxam 12.0%WG M/s UPL Ltd., Mumbai

M/ s Insecticides India Ltd.

Endosulfan* 35% + Cypermethrin 5% EC M/s Excel Industries Ltd., Mumbai
Ethion 40% + Cypermethrin 5% EC M/s Rallis India Ltd., Bangalore.
Ethiprole 40% + Imidacloprid 40% (80% WG) M/s Bayer Crop Science Ltd, Mumbai
Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG M/s Bayer Crop Science Ltd, Mumbai
Fenobucarb 20% +Buprofezin 5% SE M/s Crystal crop Protection Pvt. Ltd., Delhi
Fipronil 4% Thiamethoxam 4% w/w SC M/s Parijat Industries (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
Flubendiamide 4%+Buprofezin20%SC M/s. Rallis India Ltd. Bangalore
Hexaconazole 4.0% + Carbendazim 16.0% SC M/s Insecticides India Ltd., New Delhi
Imidacloprid 21% + Beta-cyfluthrin 10.5% SC M/s Bayer Crop Science Ltd, Mumbai
Imidacloprid 18.5% + Hexaconazole 1.5% FS (Seed Dresser) M/s Rallis India Ltd., Bangalore
Imidacloprid 6.0% + Lambda cyhalothrin 4.0% SL M/s Willowood Chemical Pvt. Ltd.
Imiprothrin 0.05% + Cypermethrin 1.0% CL M/s Godrej Consumer Products Ltd., Mumbai
Imiprothrin 0.07% + Cypermethrin 0.20% Aerosol M/s Godrej Consumer Products Ltd., Mumbai
Imiprothrin 0.1% + Cyphenothrin 0.15%
Indoxacarb 14.5% + Acetamiprid7.7% SC M/s Rallis India Ltd., Bangalore.
Methyl bromide 98% + chlorpicrin 2%
Novaluron 5.25% + Indoxacarb 4.5% SC M/s MakhteshimAgan India Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad
Phosalone 24% + Cypermethrin 5% EC M/s Aventis CropscienceLtd..
Phosphamidon 40% + Imidacloprid 2% SP M/s United Phosphorus Ltd.
Profenofos 40% + Cypermethrin 4% EC M/s Syngenta India Limited, Pune
Profenofos 40% + Fenpyroximate 2.50%EC M/s Excel Crop Care Ltd., Mumbai
Propoxur 0.25% + Cyfluthrin 0.025% Aerosal M/s Bayer India
Propoxur 0.5% + Cyfluthrin 0.015% Spray
Propoxur 0.5% + Cyfluthrin 0.025% Spray,
Pyriproxyfen 10% + Bifenthrin 10% w/w SC M/s Parijat Industries (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
Pyriproxyfen 10% + Bifenthrin 10% w/w EC M/s Parijat Industries (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
Pyriproxyfen 5olo + Diafenthiuron 257u SE M/s GSP crop life  Pvt Ltd.
Pyriproxyfen 5% + Fenpropathrin 15% EC M/s Sumitomo Chemical India Pvt. Ltd.
Spirotetramat 11.01% w/w + Imidacloprid 11.01% w/w SC (FIM) M/s Bayer CropScience Ltd., Mumbai
Thiamethoxam 12.6% + Lambda-cyhalothrin 9.5% ZC M/s Syngenta India Ltd.
Thiamethoxam 1.0% w/w + Chlorantraniliprole 0.5% w/w GR M/s Syngenta India Ltd., Pune
Ametoctradin 27% + Dimethomorph 20.27 %SC BASF India Ltd.,, Mumbai
Azoxystrobin 8.3%+ Mancozeb 66.7% WG M/s United Phosphorus Ltd.,
Azoxystrobin11.5%+ Mancozeb30.0% WG M/s Crystal Crop Protection Pvt. Ltd., Delhi
Azoxystrobin16.7%+ Tricyclazole 33.3% SC M/s Crystal Crop Protection Pvt. Ltd., Delhi
Azoxystrobin 11.0%+ Tebuconazole 18.3% SC M/s GSP Crop Science Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad
Azoxystrobin 12.5%+ Tebuconazole 12.5% SC M/s Excel Crop careltd. Mumbai
Azoxystrobin 7.1 % + Propiconazole 11.9% SE (Import) M/s AdamaMakhteshimLtd..
Benalaxyl-M 4.0% + Mancozeb 65.0% WP  Ms Isagro (Asia ) Agrochemical Pvt. Ltd.
Benalaxyl 8.0 % + Mancozeb 65% WP M/s FMC India Ltd.
Boscalid 25.2+ Pyraclostrobin 12.8% WG M/s BASF India Ltd., Mumbai
Captan 70%+Hexaconazole5%WP
Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP M/s United Phosphorus Ltd., Mumbai
Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WS M/s United Phosphorus Ltd., Mumbai
Carbendazim 1.92% + Mancozeb 10.08% GR M/s United Phosphorus Ltd., Mumbai
Carbendazim 25% + Mancozeb 50%WS M/s Indofil Industries Ltd.
Carbendazim 25% Flusilazole 12.5% SE M/s DhanukaAgritech Ltd.
Carboxin 17.5% + Thiram 17.5% FF M/s Chemchura Chemical Pvt. Ltd.
Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% WS M/s Crompton Specialaties Asia Pacific.
Carfentrazone Ethyl 20% + Sulfosulfuron 25% WG M/s FMC India Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore

General Agriculture – Model Question

Central institute of post harvest engineering and technology is situated at

GROW MORE FOOD (GMF) campaign was launched in the year

New Leaf variety is transgenic of

"Rattol" is a variety of

Father of Modern Pathology is

World Food Day is celebrated on

The term "Genetics" was coined by

Number of agro climatic zones classified by planning commission is

Wonder cane refers to

Super fine variety of rice is

C:N ratio of Normal soil

For amendment of acidic soil ______________ is added

For amendment of basic soil ____________ is added

Which of the following denotes the purity of the colour

The passion of gardening from Europe to Asia

This is a first: France and China have formed a partnership around learning gardening in schools. With the 2015-2016 school year, 22,000 children from French-speaking schools in Beijing were introduced to the joys of growing flowers and vegetables, while at the same time, in France, the 17th edition of gardening in schools was getting ready. Beijing renews the operation in 2016-2017.

The initiative had never been taken yet … While 68,000 children were preparing to take part in the 2016 School Gardening Week , 22,000 children from French schools in the Chinese capital were discovering at school. the millennial gestures of gardening. The French Embassy in Beijing launched the movement, with the support of the Limagrain seed production company . The principle ? Each participating school had to identify an area of 20 m2 (or its equivalent in bins and planters), define a kitchen garden project and make it live from sowing to harvesting. In June 2016, an awards ceremony was organized to distinguish the most successful projects.

Gardening as a way of life

As of autumn 2015, 22 schools have expressed their wish to join the operation. Limagrain graciously made available to participating schools all the necessary to accompany them in their projects: seeds first, but also potting soil, gardening tools, natural products of soil fertilization and pest control of the garden. . Teaching kits were also distributed to teachers – almost identical to those distributed to French teachers participating in Gardening Week. These kits provide all the recommendations necessary for the creation of a vegetable garden: choice of species , preparation of the soil, sowing, fertilization and irrigation, fight against pests, crops.

800 children were able to work directly on the land. But 22,000 kindergarten and primary school children participated in the design of the project and were involved in its follow-up. The contest punctuated all the school life 2015-2016. Because a kitchen garden project is biology to explain the life cycle of a plant, but also reflections on respect for the environment, plastic arts with drawing to design the garden and then painting to illustrate blooms, mathematics for calculating space, etc. Gardening is an excellent opportunity to approach the traditional subjects of the teaching of children from a new angle …

Species from all over the world

What are the species that have been planted by the children? Aromas in shambles, vegetables such as eggplant, spinach, radish, tomato, cucumber, carrot, cabbage, pepper and leek, but also melon, strawberry, etc. The flowers friends of vegetables – nasturtiums, cosmos, marigolds and marigolds -, natural allies of the fight against the aphids and the caries, were also very appreciated.

The choice of species was an opportunity to do some history and geography … Indeed, the plants of the garden come from the 4 corners of the world. Eggplant, carrot, salad, onion and radish come from Asia or the Middle East. Tomatoes, zucchini or green beans come from the American continent. Africa and the Mediterranean basin have seen the birth of leek, fennel, cucumber or beet. As for Europe, it is the land of origin only rare vegetables such as broccoli and some roots (turnip, rutabaga). It is the history of the selection of plants, their adaptation to soils and climates, which allowed to create diversity in our gardens and our plates. This is how the history of plant breeding, which began with the Neolithic.

Svalbard: Noah’s ark of seeds

It may seem paradoxical to keep seeds in a safe frozen 1000 km from the North Pole. In this place where nothing grows, the seed bank of Svalbard, located in Norway, is mainly a “rescue bank”! 

In situ and ex situ collections

More than 1,500 gene banks store seeds or vegetative organs around the world. From the smallest to the largest, some serve as “memory” for breeders and others respond to urgent requests from farmers for the next harvest.

In situ banks are seed stocks kept close to production sites. The largest international centers are located in endemic areas. Thus, 120,000 rice varieties are kept at IRRI in the Philippines, 27,000 maize at CYMMIT in Mexico, 7,000 potato at CIP in Peru. Many smaller collections exist, but many are fragile in size, operation and resources. They may be located in politically unstable areas or in a threatened environment.

Keeping the seeds out of their center of origin: ex situ collections

In order to save seeds for the long term and for global food security, the idea of collecting a collection on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen was born in 2008. The Svalbard World Nature Reserve is now funded by foundations. , States and private bodies under the scientific supervision of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), GCIAR (Advisory Group for Agricultural Research) and other institutions through the Crop Trust Diversity Trust created in 2004.

A temperature always negative

It is naturally cold and dry in this safe installed in the permafrost, where three cold rooms have been dug. The temperature is lowered to -18 ° C and the seeds are protected in envelopes placed in boxes and kept on shelves. The seeds then have an extremely reduced metabolism and their conservation is maximal.

A storage capacity of 4.5 million seeds

Currently, the Svalbard genebank comprises 820,000 batches (samples) from all over the world of major food grains (maize, rice, wheat, barley, sorghum …) and vegetables(eggplant, lettuce …) and tubers (potato…).

A perfect model of long-term preservation?

From a technical point of view, the world seed reserve Svalbard is a guarantee of the durability of the collections, because the site is frozen permanently. There is no need to worry about melting glaciers or rising sea levels, or any tectonic activity. Likewise, the administration and international management of the Svalbard Center is a guarantee of continuity and security. But by choosing public-private funding, the center is subject to criticism of access to seeds. There is a data bank for international exchanges, but the Center is not organized to respond to individual or urgent requests from farmers. This “ark of Noah’s seeds” is complementary to the banks in situ, hoping that it will not need to replace them!  

Cucurbitaceae: a generous and colorful botanical family

Since the 90s, in France we associate the period of All Saints to Halloween, a party from across the Atlantic. On the evening of October 31, everything is good to be scared: skeletons, ghosts, witches, zombies … and grinning pumpkins! Squash and pumpkins are indeed kings in this season: their colors brighten market stalls, and pumpkin dug and illuminated with a candle has become the symbol of Halloween (thus reliving the Irish legend of Jack O’Lantern). But by the way, is it a pumpkin, a squash or a pumpkin? Rediscover Cucurbitaceae, from the most known to the most unexpected …

Cucurbitaceae, a very varied family

Cucurbitaceae form a vast botanical family. With 130 genera, 800 species and some 10,000 varieties , it offers an impressive diversity of fruits: squash, zucchini, pumpkins, pumpkins, pumpkins, pastries, colocynth, calabashes, cucumbers, melons and watermelons … Not easy to see clearly … How to classify all this little world?

Only 6 of 130 genera are widely grown in the world. The best known is the genus Cucurbita , which is also the most diversified in terms of edible fruit varieties: there are all shapes, sizes, colors, and for all tastes! It comes in 5 species, including:

  • Cucurbita pepo : zucchini, squash (Vegetable Spaghetti, Jasmine of Vendée …), pumpkins (Pumpkin of Touraine), pastries, colocynth, pomarines.
  • Cucurbita moschata : butternut squash and all the varieties that come from it, whose flesh is sweet (Doubeurre, Butternut, Sucrine of Berry, Nice long …).
  • Cucurbita maxima : pumpkins (Atlantic Giant which holds the size record, Bright Red of Etampes, Hungarian Blue, Galeuse of Eysines …), pumpkins and giraumons.
  • Cucurbita ficifolia : mention the squash of Siam, with black seeds.
  • Cucurbita argyrosperma : the squash of Mexico, little known in Europe.

The other 5 genres are less diversified. The genus Citrullus includes watermelons ( Citrullus lanatus ), the genus Cucumis gathers cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ) and melons ( Cucumis melo ). As for the genus Sechium , it is that of chayotes ( Sechium edule ).

Decorative or utilitarian cucurbits

Some Cucurbitaceae have been cultivated for millennia to serve as containers: they are the famous gourds ( genus Lagenaria ), or calabashes. When drying, their skin becomes very hard: depending on the size and shape of the fruit, they can serve as a spoon, a cup, a bottle, a vase, a float, a musical instrument … 

Another curiosity is the genus Luffa , in which the pulp of the fruit becomes dry and fibrous at maturity: the bark is removed to obtain a vegetable sponge (traditionally used for household chores … but also for skin care).

Other Cucurbitaceae are cultivated for their ornamental qualities: unusual shapes, bright and contrasting colors, and excellent preservation! There are dozens of varieties, different types of apartment: decorative calabashes (Squash Club Hercules, Caveman’s Club, Dipper, Cobra …), colocynth (Claws of the Devil, Bottle Squash …), or Cucumis with spiky fruits. thorns ( C. carolinus, C. longipes …).

Ancient and modern varieties

With squash and pumpkins, lovers of old varieties have something to celebrate! The seeds catalogs of course offer modern varieties, including F1 hybrids , but also a good range of old varieties. It must be said that the old varieties are numerous in squash and pumpkins, with nearly 60 “old varieties for amateur” listed on the French Official Catalog (it is less than for tomatoes, which holds the record in the material, but it is significantly more than for other plants in the garden).

Some culture tips

The cultivation of squash in the kitchen garden is easy! The only real constraint: to have room, especially for the “runner” varieties .

Sow them in 3-seeded pans, either in pots around mid-April (to be transplanted in May), or directly in place and in warm ground in mid-May, spacing them from 1 to 2 meters depending on the variety. Fill the planting holes with compost or well decomposed manure (squash and pumpkins are very greedy in manure!). Native to South and Central America, they are also chilly: book them a sunny and hot location. Water the seedlings regularly and watch for slugs. 

During the summer, water in dry weather, without wetting the foliage (risk of powdery mildew), and straw the soil. In September, when fruits are approaching ripeness, isolate them from soil moisture by placing them on a tile or flat stone. Harvest them before the frosts and keep them in a cool (10 ° C) and dry place. 

Note that Cucurbitaceae belonging to the same species hybridize very easily between them. If you intend to recover the seeds to sow the following year, beware of hybridizations! Do not grow different varieties of the same species.

Grass Cultivation – Today, grass makes life easier!

What a pleasure to find, at the awakening of spring, its dense lawn in the garden … Modern grass varieties simplify our life: less weeding, less mowing, fewer holes in the lawn

Grass to avoid weeding

With the ban on the use of synthetic plant protection products from 2019, if you are a gardener you will not be able to treat your lawn or your paths. Although it does not concern the installed lawns, it will remain the earth paths to weeding: how to do? “Rather than weeding mechanically or manually, or allow to develop a wild flora, a good idea is to prairie grass areas where we may be left without the invasion of unwanted grasses, advocates Jean-Marc Lecourt, president from the French Society of Turfgrass. If the soil is well prepared and its surface flat, with varieties having the crucial ability to quickly establish sodding increases the lift of the ground and may be suitable for walkways. He continues. 

It is an effective solution provided that the implantation is successful: prepare the soil well, but especially choose varieties that have been selected for their speed of growth at the start to occupy the soil before the other plants, for their density and density. disease resistance . It exists !

No beautiful lawns without adequate varieties

The varieties in quality turf are all included in the lists of the catalog official of speciesand varieties catalog which guarantees their authenticity. Their different abilities are noted by an independent official body: the Geves (Variety and Seed Study and Control Group ). 

Each registered variety is the culmination of 15 years of research! “Varieties are increasingly selected for specific uses,” explains Jean-Marc Lecourt. We do not expect the same thing from plants in decorative lawns, public recreation fields or sports fields. In the trade you find associations of species studied for infinitely varied uses. “.  There are quality labels corresponding to the various uses.

So many unsuspected differences between varieties

Do you want to sow a lawn where you will play football? “Certain varieties really have the capacity to better resist trampling or tearing, which is a crucial criterion for sports fields,”says Vincent Gensollen, head of the Geves grass variety registration testing network. In the same way, the density of the foliage and the intensity of the grass green vary according to the variety. Another key criterion is the time to regrow. Varieties are indeed selected for their very slow growth. It becomes possible to mow, for example, only 2 to 3 times a year in communal areas such as cemeteries where one seeks precisely to limit maintenance.“For two years, the criterion of grass growth, determining the number of clippings, is noted in the registration tests, says Vincent Gensollen. It was measured that between old and new varieties of English ryegrass and tall fescue, the main species of turf, the volume of mowing was halved! “. 

Even if species associations are sown, all their components must be of quality. “We do not make good mixtures with bad constituents, says our specialist. We therefore study the varieties and not the associations because we can not test the innumerable cases of figure, but our notations inform well on the quality of the components. “.In the face of the disappearance of phytosanitary products, it becomes even more important to choose varieties of high quality turf. Regarding the purchase of seeds , Vincent Gensollen explains: “A low-end turf will be sparse and sensitive to diseases: this is explained by the existence of an antagonism between the development of the vegetative system of the plant and that of the reproductive parts. , the seeds. A variety that is good for the grass is therefore often bad seed, and the price of seed is affected. “ .

Isabelle Ferrière

The inscription of lawn varieties, a lever for quality

There are 222 varieties of 13 species of turf grass on lists of Catalog French official. To be registered, the varieties must bring a more, on precise criteria, compared to the well-known control varieties. Candidate varieties are cultivated and logged for 3 years in the official National Test Network, which is under the Ministry of Agriculture. This network comprises 13 sites in France and in other European countries representative of our different climates.

The criteria relate to agronomic and environmental value. Are noted: the installation, the behavior vis-à-vis the trampling, that vis-à-vis the diseases, the color of the foliage, the density of the grass, the fineness of the foliage, the slow growth, the durability and, finally, the overall aesthetic aspect.

All evaluation results are published on the website, to help you choose your varieties or find information about those in your mix.

Quality protein maize for improving the nutritional status

ABCofAgri Publish Code: ABCAG269811A

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Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third major cereal crop in the world after wheat and rice and is used for both livestock feed and human consumption. Maize contribute 15% of the world’s protein and 19% of the calories derived from food cops. Pregnant women, lactating mothers, and young children are particularly the most affected.  In India, maize is the third important food crop after rice and wheat. At national level the area under this crop is 9.43 million ha, production 24.26 million tonnes and productivity is 2583 kg/ha. In Jharkhand it is cultivated over 0.2569 million ha production 0.517 million tonnes and productivity 2012 kg/ha (Annual report maize, 2016). To alleviate malnutrition, protein content in maize by increasing the prolamine (zein) fraction in the maize endosperm. With its high content of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, some of the important vitamins and minerals, maize acquired a well deserved reputation as a poor man’s nutricerra for millions of people in developing countries. Cereals proteins, however, have poor nutritional value for monogastric animals, including humans, because of reduced content of essential amino acids such as lysine tryptophan and threonine. From the nutritional point of view lysine is the most limiting amino acid in the maize endosperm protein followed by tryptophan. The need to genetically ameliorate the poor nutritional value of cereals grains such as maize has been recognized for a long time.

Quality protein maize which is nutritionally superior over the normal size is the new dynamics to signify its importance not only for food and nutritional security but also for quality feed for poultry, piggery and animal sector as well. Quality protein maize has specific features of having balanced amount of amino acids with high content of lysine and tryptophan and low content of leucine and isoleucine. The balanced proportion of all these essential amino acids in quality protein maize enhances the biological value of protein. The biological value of protein in QPM is just double than that of normal maize protein which is very close to the milk protein as the biological value of milk and QPM proteins are 90 and 80% respectively. Whereas it is less than 50% in normal maize protein. There are 9 QPM hybrids of different color had been developed and released in India. The production technologies is same as normal grain maize except isolation as to maintain the purity of QPM, it should be grown in isolation with normal maize.

The QPM research was started long back during 1970’s, but gained momentum during 1990s with continuous breeding efforts on development of high yielding hard endosperm modified Opaque-2 maize germplasm by International centre for maize and wheat improvement (CIMMYT). The Directorate of Maize Research (DMR), New Delhi developed first QPM composite variety Shakti-1 with 0.63 per cent tryptophan in the year 1997. The QPM research gained further momentum by launch of National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP) on QPM in 1998 by ICAR. Rajendra agricultural university (RAU), Pusa during 2001 released first QPM three way cross hybrid Shaktiman-1 and first QPM single cross hybrid, Shaktiman-2 during 2004. Choudhary charan singh Haryana agricultural university (CCSHAU), Karnal released another QPM single cross hybrid, HQPM-1 which is the first yellow grain QPM single cross hybrid released for its cultivation across the country. Later in the series of QPM, Shaktiman-3 and Shaktiman-4 released by RAU, Pusa in 2006. In 2007 another QPM single cross hybrid HQPM-5 from CCSHAU, Karnal was released for cultivation. Further two new single cross QPM hybrids i.e. HQPM-7 from CCSHAU, Karnal and Vivek QPM-9 from Vivekanand parvatiya krishi anusandhan shala (VPKAS), Almora has been identified during 2008. Opaque -2 (o2) is a natural recessive mutation in the transcriptional activator conditioning negative expression of zein protein.

The QPM has got special distinction among the cereal due to presence of high amount of lysine and tryptophan, therefore QPM can be utilized for diversified purposes in food and nutritional security. It is also useful in fulfilling the protein requirement of different sections of society to prevent malnutrition. QPM with high carbohydrates, fats, better quality protein, some of vitamins and minerals, it is nutritious feed for poultry, livestock, swine, fish, etc. Use of QPM as feed leads to early development of broilers, save energy and feed and also extra cost on lysine and tryptophan.

The nutritious product developed from QPM can replace fancied and highly priced industrial foods. These products can be developed in villages and thus could be a great source of rural entrepreneurship QPM based rural industries has a wider scope for employment generation and rural prosperity.

Himanshu Raj1, Anjna Rani Minz2 and Satish Kumar Pandey3
  1. Himanshu Raj, Senior Research Fellow, ICAR-IINRG, Namkum, Ranchi 
  2. Anjna Rani Minz, Mangement Trainee, Food Corporation of India, Ranchi 
  3. Satish Kumar Pandey, Senior Research fellow, ICAR-IINRG, Namkum, Ranchi

Are our foods rich enough in nutrients?

Rest assured: our food always contains, in sufficient quantity, the nutrients that our body needs! A short tour of the food components.

Nutrient contents vary

The components vary a lot from one species to another: between rapeseed and wheat seeds, for example, the former are much richer in fat components, the latter in starch. 
And within the same species, there are strong differences in grades. Thus, the Ciqual table of nutritional composition of food ( see the dedicated website of ANSES ) indicates an average calcium content of raw kale of 185 mg / 100g fresh product, but with a minimum of 44 and a maximum of 460 , a gap of more than 10 times! The raw carrot, for calcium always, oscillates between 9 and 44 mg / 100 g, with an average to 32.6. And so for all the products and the constituents analyzed: the minimum-maximum differences can be important.

Have grades changed?

“When we look at the composition tables of the 50s and the current tables, there is no change. The vitamin C levels of apples are the same in the past and today, “notes Catherine Renard, Director of UMR INRA-University of Avignon Safety and Quality of Plant-Based Products,” and when there are differences , as can be seen in iron, they remain anecdotal and can be explained in part by the methods of analysis, more precise today. 
A comparison of the 1960 and 2016 tables published in the journal of the Académie d’Agriculture shows that the average levels of fresh produce remained broadly stable from one component to another. There are sometimes some differences, more or less. Thus, wheats and cabbages are on average richer inprotein , while green beans and carrots are depleted. Carbohydrates have decreased in some vegetables like tomato, lettuce, green beans and cabbage. The magnesium and potassium contents are remarkably stable. As for vitamin C, it did not vary except in carrots. Beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A, has only increased in the current varieties of leek and lettuce (X3).

Why so many variations?

“Those responsible for the nutrient richness are first and foremost varieties, ” explains Catherine Renard, “and then plays the cross-product effect of the maturity of the product at harvest with the storage method.” Concentrations can increase or decrease with the maturation of plant organs: the vitamin C content is twice as high in tomatoes, strawberries, peppers, immature beans as ripe, but for peas it is the opposite. 
During storage the contents, especially of vitamins, decrease rapidly, but not always: in spinach leaves vitamin C drops very quickly, while in the carrot, which is a root, storage organ, it does not move : everything depends on the component and the plant. Processing canned, frozen or cooked dishes also alters certain nutrients. 
The year effect is essential: according to the climatic conditions, for the same variety the results are extremely varied. The intensity of the fertilization, the sunshine, the temperature, play a lot on the contents of the product. “This set of factors is very complex to unwind! In any case, what is important is to “consume as much as possible seasonal products being attentive to their conservation,” concludes Catherine Renard.

What role does selection play?

Comparisons show that there has been no upheaval since the 1960s. In tomato, the concentrations of vitamin C and carotenoids are identical in ancient and modern varieties * grown at the same time. 
But when compounds are linked to unfavorable characteristics, they were counter-selected, as in the 50’s cucurbitacin responsible for cucumber bitterness. The protein content of wheat has been increased because it is an important criterion selected for breadmaking. The inheritance of these characters is complex because they often depend on several genes. Research is continuing to better understand the genes involved, how they work, and to be able to propose improved varieties with higher levels of compounds that are desirable for health or, on the contrary, without undesirable substances such as allergens.

Rapeseed oil, better for health

Rapeseed oil is one of the most consumed in France. In connection with the advice of nutritionists, its composition and its content of “good” fatty acids (omega 3) has been improved by selection, for the sake of our cardiovascular and neurological systems. Similarly, the sulfur compounds have been greatly reduced, so as to make the residue of the pressing of the seed oil, called cake, more appetizing for the animals. It is thanks to this that the rapeseed crop has been able to develop and consumers benefit from a quality oil for their health.

Potatoes for all tastes and dishes

The potato remains the favourite vegetable of the French. Steamed, fried, fried, gratin Dauphinois, the potato is suitable for all types of cooking and recipes and it is a real concentrate of energy and vitamins.

 The potato does not know the crisis

Today, despite less consumption than 50 years ago, the potato remains a staple food in the French diet! They consume about 50kg each year, half of which is fresh and the other half processed.

Hundreds of varieties exist

There is not a potato but potatoes! 150 varieties are listed, adapted to the various methods of preparation. But there are mainly about twenty on stalls, classified according to their culinary use: potatoes with firm flesh, melting flesh, floury flesh and the original.

  • The firm-fleshed potatoes have a distinct taste and, by definition, a good resistance to cooking. They are ideal for cooking with steam or water and are particularly suitable for potatoes in field dress, in salads, sauteed or fried.
  • The early potatoes  , harvested early in the season, are melting and delicious in field dress or when browned in a pan.
  • Other varieties, floury flesh, are perfect for making crispy fries and low fat or creamy mash and good consistency. They are also suitable for soups or stews.
  • And then, there are the original, the unclassifiable by their color, their shape and place of production … The trend is to better communicate on the varieties in general and more particularly on the “original” with higher added value. 

When time is running out

Sometimes there is no time for homemade preparations. Industrialists have therefore developed a great diversity of dishes in which potatoes often occupy an important place. The varieties used in processing are not selected at random. Whether it is to produce potato flakes, chips, french fries … frozen, canned, vacuum packed …, each category requires potatoes with specific technical characteristics in dry matter, texture, size, coloring …

Uses in all fields …

The agri-food industry also uses a quarter of potatoes produced in France in the form of starch , that is to say starch. It is extracted from varieties called starch, specially selected for their high dry starch content. Starch is used in soups, charcuteries, or sauces and is found in small quantities but in the majority of cooked dishes. Note that starch is also on the list of raw materials for paper, cardboard, chemistry, pharmaceuticals, the adhesive industry, cosmetics … 

Biodegradable plastics based on potatoes

Today, new markets are opening up for the production of starch potatoes, particularly in the manufacture of biomaterials. 100% biodegradable plastics from potatoes or corn replace the production of petrochemical plastics, to the delight of the environment!

A little history of the potato

Originating from the Andean Cordillera, the potato is a recent starch on the scale of our European diet.

Good conservation, at the time of the conquistadores, it allows the crews of the Spanish ships to feed during the crossing … and thus to join the old Europe.

At the end of the eighteenth century, the potato became the main agricultural production of Germany, and spread to Austria, Switzerland, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Sweden and all the regions located in the East of France. It helps to stem the frequent famines associated with poor harvests of wheat.

Potatoes in salad

For a potato salad, opt for a firm-fleshed variety. After steaming, they are left to warm slowly before peeling and slicing.

A drizzle of olive oil, a few drops of balsamic vinegar, a little salt and pepper from the mill, some anchovies, finely chopped chives … and voila!

Why do spaghetti not stick anymore?

Malaise in Italian kitchens … Our charming neighbors are no longer the only holders of art and how to master the cooking of pasta! Because this operation is now available to everyone, whether you are a talented cook or beginner. Decryption of this phenomenon.

The evolution of industrial processes has allowed some advances such as the reduction of cooking time – sometimes as short today as for a boiled egg! – But the most spectacular progress over the last thirty years has come from  breeders  and their work on  durum varieties . 

Pasta does not grow on trees, it’s well known. But we sometimes forget that they are made from durum wheat. It is even one of the most common forms of consumption of this cereal. Their quality is expressed through many factors such as cooking time, the amount of water absorbed during cooking, texture after cooking (firmness, elasticity), presentation, color, aroma and taste. sure.

Pasta too cooked, no more panic!

Let’s dive some spaghetti into boiling water. They will not only maintain a good resistance to cooking but also to overcooking. What to stay zen in case of unexpected phone call! They will also be very pleasant in the mouth because their texture will be firm and supple. 

These culinary qualities are directly derived from research on varieties . Because durum wheat contains naturally and in large quantities gluten, a set of proteins whose properties – viscoelasticity for example – play a key role at the time of cooking. 

Only here, the quality of gluten varies from one variety to another. All durum varieties are not equivalent. It was therefore necessary to select specific varieties containing a gluten of the desired quality. The block of pasta all stuck together and overcooked now belongs to the past, for the greatest relief of students!

Yellow pasta or pasta with eggs?

When you are fond of pasta, color is important. We prefer to buy pasta clear and amber yellow, which is associated quite naturally with the amount of eggs per kilo. In fact the yellow index depends on pigments common to the carrot and which are present in semolina from durum wheat. To appetite, research has also been conducted on varieties rich in pigments.

Some cooking tips

So, it will be understood, good pasta, it is first of all good varieties of durum wheat. After that, no need to be an Italian expert. You need a big pan with a lot of salt and boiling water. It’s chemical, the pasta needs to be seized, so that the gluten can coagulate quickly and prevent the starch from spilling into the water, making the pasta soft and sticky. We monitor the cooking time … and enjoy!

How to avoid mistakes of taste?

Before marketing, expert tasters judge the condition of the pasta to be twice as long as the normal cooking time. Pasta should never become sticky and disintegrate. Second test, experts note the color of the raw dough under a standardized supermarket light. Finally, last test, they must taste pasta cooked in a normal time, and this in the dark. They can thus focus on essential qualities for consumers: texture and taste; and give their final mark.

Why durum wheat is not a tender

Durum wheat is grown to make semolina used to make cookies, cakes, couscous and pasta. But can we make in the fields the difference between durum wheat and soft wheat? Yes, when the crops are in spikes. The durum wheat ear is stiffer, more erect, and is bristling with a colorful beard. In addition, durum wheat grains are different from those of soft wheat. They are bigger, denser, more glassy. Otherwise, durum wheat is grown like soft wheat, but not in all regions. It is found mainly in the South, as well as towards the Center and the Paris Basin. France and Greece produce durum wheat, but on surfaces inferior to those cultivated in Italy.

Shallots: a research at the forefront … of taste

To raise the flavor of a fish or give a touch of originality to a green salad, what better than a finely chopped shallot? But gray shallot or pink shallot?

Shallot “gardens” and shallots “fields”

The gray shallot e is most appreciated by gourmets. It is grown mainly in vegetable gardens. It can be kept only a few weeks after its harvest in the fall. Hence the difficulty of finding out of season.

The pink or Jersey shallot constitutes the bulk of French vegetable production. Indeed, this shallot can be kept 6 months without problem which allows a more flexible marketing. It is therefore the subject of all the attention of researchers who are dedicated to the improvement of  shallot varieties . Research that requires a lot of perseverance and great technicality …

The meaning of progress

The selection of shallot began in the early 1970s at INRA. The creation of new varietieswas then essentially oriented towards agronomic objectives. The first thing was to obtain plants without flowering. Indeed, the appearance of a flowering stalk reduces the yield of bulbs. Low susceptibility to diseases and parasites, or regular yield, were also taken into account.

A more attractive shallot

Today, in addition to these agronomic aspects of the characteristics associated with the marketing and use by gardeners who wish to plant shallots. We seek to obtain attractive presentation bulbs, firm, well colored flesh and which are well preserved. Another desired property is a high dry matter content (ie low water content bulbs) because the taste value seems to be correlated with it.

Innovate by increasing the aromatic intensity

To create new varieties of shallot, researchers proceed by marriage of unpublished couples. As the genetic diversity within the Jersey shallot is quite limited, they achieve successful crosses with other botanical species of Allium with new and interesting qualities. With the gray shallot for example, which brings a strong aromatic intensity, but also with a species native to the foothills of the Himalayas which has a good resistance to diseases.

The shallot is good for your health

Like garlic or onion, shallot is known for its protective effects against certain cancers, particularly digestive. It has indeed a strong antioxidant activity thanks to a high content of flavonoids. It also has a significant amount of beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and is a good source of vitamin B6, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium. In short, the shallot is surprisingly rich in vitamins and minerals.

The anecdotes of the shallot

The shallot has many local appellations . Depending on the region, it may be called Veal Head, Poitou Red, Chicken Leg, Turkey Leg, or Half-Long Pear.

The shallot has health benefits . It is rich in vitamins and minerals. It also promotes the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, and has digestive properties.

Put a shallot to grow in a glass of water. You will then be able to use its leaves to pleasantly replace the chives.

What is called shallot in Quebec actually corresponds to scallion or green onion. It is often called the true shallot “shallot”.

Shallot, a fragrance of history

The shallot was a sacred food among the Persians, Egyptians and Hebrews. It would have been brought back to France at the time of the Crusades, the city of Ascalon in Palestine, but this version does not make the unanimity of the historians …

The term “shallot”, which was written escaluigne (also eschalogne or escalone) in the twelfth century, will take its final form in the sixteenth century.

Today France is the leading producer of shallots in Europe with 2,000 producers on 2,000 hectares. 40,000 tonnes of shallot are produced each year.

Beet, a serious competitor for the cane

Sugar is systematically associated with cane, this plant widely cultivated in the tropical zones of our Globe. It is the world’s leading source of sugar production. But the sugar beet intends to exist on this market…

A plant from home

The sugar beet is characterized by a white flesh, as well as a conical and fleshy root. It is in the root that sugar is stored. This is formed through photosynthesis, at the level of the bouquet of leaves, which will be more or less dense depending on the variety. We distinguish between sugar beet and vegetable beet (this beautiful red plant in our gardens!) And fodder beet (for livestock feed).

Unlike cane, which likes heat and humidity, sugar beet prefers temperate climates. Originally grown in Italy, it has established itself very well in France. Today, Hexagon is the world’s leading producer of beet sugar! 380,000 hectares of sugar beet are grown there by 26,000 farmers. For the transformation of the plant, sweets-distilleries and refineries mesh the territory …

A plant that has made progress

Until the beginning of the 19th century, cane was the only major source of sugar. According to the FAO, it still accounts for 70 to 80% of the world’s sugar production. The reason for this success is simple: the sugar content of cane is much denser than that of beet. That’s why plant breeding research is working to improve the potential of sugar beet. 

Researchers have thus allowed the twentieth century to increase by 50% the amount of sugar produced per hectare! Two axes were followed:

  • The increase in beet yield per hectare.
  • The improvement of the sugar content of the plant.

To impose yourself in front of the sugar cane

The end of the sugar quotas is announced for 2017 and, with it, the end of the guaranteed prices to beet growers. The competition with the cane will then be frontal … and maybe fatal! To continue to exist, beet has only one option: to offer a better yield of sugar. 

In this context, the aim of the Aker program is to double the annual growth rate of sugar yield / hectare by 2020. The program is led by a consortium of eleven partners, public bodies and private breeding companies. The means implemented are up to the challenge: 80 researchers, 20 million euros budget.

The little story of beet sugar

In the sixteenth century, the agronomist Olivier de Serres discovers that the beetroot, coming from Italy, can produce a syrup of sugar. But it was not until 1786 that a German chemist, Achard, succeeded in extracting sugar from the beet and solidifying it.

In the nineteenth century, beet will be grown for its sugar … In 1806, the sea blockade related to the conflict between French and English, leads to a shortage of sugar. Soon after, Benjamin Delessert succeeded in refining beet sugar industrially. The Legion of Honor is attributed to him by Napoleon who calls him “Baron of Empire”. In the wake, the head of state ordered the planting of 100,000 hectares of beets. This was the starting point of a great adventure, agronomic, industrial and economic.

Beet, a great sugar factory

Men do not make sugar, they extract it. The sugar of plants is composed of sucrose. During the day, through photosynthesis, plants accumulate the energy they use at night to make sugar in the leaves. Then the plants make reserves of sugar that they store in the stem for the cane and in the root for the beet. Thanks to the breedersyields have increased: from 28 tons in 1939 to 45 tons of beets per hectare at present (with yields between 30 to 65 tons). In the same way, beets are more and more sugar. A ton of sugar beet supplies about 140 kilos of sugar, up from 115 kilos a century ago. If you do the math, that’s 7 tonnes of sugar per hectare. It’s impressive to see the beet’s ability to make sugar with sunshine!

Cane sugar

It is part of the history of civilizations. The Greeks already know the cane. The sugar that is extracted is then considered a medicine. In the seventh century, the Arabs introduced this culture into the Mediterranean countries. In the twelfth century, the Crusaders brought back sugar cane from Palestine and Syria. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it is Venice, then Portugal (Madeira) and the Balearic Islands that allow the development of sugar cane. Then the implantation of Europeans in the New World leads to a considerable expansion of sugar cane in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, Paraguay, Guadeloupe and Martinique.