Nutritional value of raspberries and blackberries
|Fresh raspberries, ½ cup / 125 ml / 65 g||Fresh blackberries, ½ cup / 125 ml / 75 g|
|Carbohydrates||7.8 g||7.3 g|
|Fat||0.4 g||0.4 g|
|Glycemic load : No data available.|
|Antioxidant power: Very high.|
Sources : Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File, 2010.
Health profile of raspberries and blackberries
|Raspberries and blackberries come in many colors, sizes, textures and flavors. Their high antioxidant content helps prevent cardiovascular disease , cancer and various chronic diseases .|
The benefits of raspberry and blackberry
|Raspberry or blackberry?
A fundamental difference distinguishes the two fruits. The blackberry retains its receptacle during picking. That of the raspberry remains attached to the plant leaving the center of the fruit hollow. Raspberries as well as blackberries can be red , black or purple .
- Cardiovascular illnesses. An in vitro study showed that, among 6 extracts of berries , those of blackberry and raspberry ranked first and second to counter the oxidation of “bad cholesterol”, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease 2 . In addition, research has shown that ellagic acid abundant in raspberries and blackberries, could reduce plaque deposits in the aorta and lower blood cholesterol in rabbits that received in their diet 12 .
- Cancer. Several in vitro studies show that extracts of Rubus family berries , including blackberries and raspberries , inhibit the growth of various cancer cells and tumors of the liver, breast, colon, lung, prostate, cervix, esophagus and mouth 3-7 , 14-16,18,19 .
- Inflammation and oxidation. Blackberry and raspberry extracts have been shown to reduce the levels of certain inflammatory markers and increase the antioxidant capacity of the blood 18 , 19 . In addition, the anthocyanidins extracted from blackberries protect the intestinal cells by preventing the formation of free radicals and reducing cell oxidation 17 . Of clinical studies will be needed, however, before applying these results to humans and to find much to eat.
What do raspberries and blackberries contain?
Ellagic acid and gallic acid
Raspberries and blackberries contain high amounts of ellagic acid and less gallic acid ( black raspberries do, however, contain high amounts). Ellagic acid and gallic acid are the main constituents of ellagitannins and gallotanins, two phenolic compounds in the tannin family. They are both recognized for their antimicrobial and antiviral activity in vitro 25 , in addition to their anticancer properties 1 , 7,11,21,26 . Ellagic acid also has antioxidant properties 20 .
|Fresh, dehydrated or frozen raspberries? Fresh
raspberries are said to contain more phenolic compounds and anthocyanidins than dehydrated raspberries , giving them better antioxidant activity 27 . The freezing night little in content except for vitamin C, which greatly reduces 24 .
Raspberries and blackberries contain anthocyanins, a type of flavonoids that give red and black pigments to these berries. Anthocyanins, like many phenolic compounds found in plants, have important antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals in the body and prevent the appearance of several diseases: cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic diseases.
According to recent studies, the antioxidant activity of raspberry comes from 50% of ellagitanins, 25% of anthocyanidins (a constituent of anthocyanins) and 20% of vitamin C 22-24 .
Red and black raspberries, as well as blackberries also contain other phenolic compounds , but the amounts can vary substantially, depending on their variety and culture. In addition, the assimilation of these phenolic compounds by the body has been little studied.
Main vitamins and minerals
|Manganese||The raspberry and blackberry are good sources of manganese.|
|Vitamin C||The raspberry and blackberry are sources of vitamin C.|
|Copper||The blackberry is a source of copper.|
|Iron||The raspberry and blackberry are sources of iron.|
|In case of diverticulosis, should you avoid consuming raspberries and blackberries.
It has long been believed that people with diverticulosis should not consume certain fruits (raspberries, blackberries, strawberries …) for fear that their small seeds get lodged in the diverticula 8 . However, no clinical study has been carried out to validate this hypothesis 9 , 10 . According to a committee of experts from the American College of Gastroenterology, it would not be necessary to exclude these foods in the event of diverticulosis 9 . On the other hand, in some individuals, small fruit seeds can irritate the intestine. It may be wise for these people to consult a dietitian-nutritionist.
- In fruit salads and vegetable salads .
- In sorbets , mousses and ice creams.
- In grout .
- In the sangria .
- In jams and jellies.
- In chocolate truffles .
- It’s going to mixing with soy milk, yogurt or vanilla ice cream and, if desired, with orange juice.
- Make jump raspberries or blackberries 1 or 2 minutes in slightly sweet butter and serve with ice cream vanilla.
- The melba peach remains incomplete if it is not accompanied by a raspberry puree.
- You can fill raspberries with a hollowed-out half-melon and sprinkle with a glass of white wine or champagne.
- Coat the raspberries or blackberries with an English cream and place them under the grill for a few minutes.
- In cakes , pies, pancakes, muffins, waffles , soufflés and charlottes.
- Add the juice or mash to the sauces accompanying the grilled meat .
- In salsa with hot peppers, onion, garlic, peppers, lime juice, fresh basil and ginger.
- Wrap them in a sheet of brick or phyllo dough , adding 1 tsp. almond cream. Bake 6 to 8 minutes in a hot oven.
- Raspberry vinegar : Soak them for a fortnight in white wine vinegar seasoned with pepper and, if desired, a little raspberry alcohol. Filter. Use this fine vinegar in salads or to deglaze a pan.
The little story of raspberries and blackberries
|Common names : raspberry, blackberry and bramble.
Scientific name : Rubus spp .
Family : rosaceae.
The term ” raspberry ” appeared in the French language in 1140. It comes from the French brambasia , which means “blackberry”. The first letter went from “b” to “f” under the influence of the word “strawberry”.
In principle, the term ” blackberry ” refers to the fruit of a tree ( Morus ) that is grown in Europe, the United States and Asia for its berries, as well as for the breeding of silkworms. However, in popular parlance, “blackberry” also refers to the fruits of several thorny sub-shrubs of the genus Rubus . The word is generally synonymous with bramble. But the latter is much less used and rather belongs to scientific language. The word ” bramble ” appeared in 1175, it comes from the classic Latin rûmex which means “sting” in reference to the thorns of the plant.
The berries were probably the first foods to be eaten by our hunter-gatherer ancestors, long before the grains and herbs. Remains of blackberries have been found in the oldest human habitations, excavated in Europe.
The genus Rubus is probably native to Asia Minor, a region which today corresponds to Turkey. From there would have gone, in different directions, the various ramifications of his family tree . It has established itself on all continents, except Antarctica, and in all latitudes, from the Arctic Circle to the tropics.
By dispersing, it has diversified, presenting more or less large fruits of red , white , yellow and black purple color , with a rather sweet or tart flavor depending on the species. It is one of the most diverse genera of the plant kingdom. It includes several subgenres, themselves sometimes composed of many varieties. There are around 200 species of raspberries and over a hundred blackberries, not to mention the many cultivars that humans have created.
It was not until the first centuries of our era that the raspberry tree was domesticated and improved so that it produced larger fruits . The Romans, who excelled in agriculture, spread its culture throughout Europe. At the end of the Middle Ages, varieties with large red and yellow fruits were cultivated, as well as varieties without thorns. As for the black raspberry , it only grows in the wild in eastern North America and, to a lesser extent, in the west. It will not be part of the selection efforts before the XIX th century, probably because the wild fruit was easy to harvest, but also because of the popularity of red raspberry.
The blackberry, used in Europe for more than 2,000 years as food, as a medicinal plant or to keep the marauders at bay, followed more or less the same trajectory. Thousands of cultivars have been created, many of which are crosses between blackberry and raspberry or between various species of blackberries. The boysenberry , the loganberry and blackberry Young , are now widely cultivated in various parts of the globe.
In Canada, there are at least 25 native species belonging to the genus Rubus . Native Americans greatly appreciated them. They dried berries or preserved them in seal fat or another fatty substance. For the people of the northern regions, whose diet was mainly meat, this was a great source of vitamin C.
The red raspberry is propagated by root cuttings , while layering is used for the varieties with purple and black fruits. In the case of blackberries, it is multiplied, depending on the species, by cuttings from the roots or stems, or by layering.
Once the cuttings or marcottes are rooted, transplant the red raspberries, leaving a spacing of 30 cm to 60 cm inside the rows; from 75 cm to 100 cm for black and purple raspberries; and from 2 m to 2.5 m for blackberries. The spacing between the rows will be 2 m for raspberries and 2.5 m for blackberries.
These plants prefer well-drained soil, deep and rich in organic matter, although they can be satisfied with soil that is too poor for other crops. They require full sunshine .
pH: 6 to 7.
Good air circulation will help mitigate the damage caused by late freezing and prevent disease. Avoid places subject to “frost holes”. If necessary, protect the raspberry patch with windbreaks .
Avoid growing raspberries and blackberries where potatoes, tomatoes, peppers and eggplant have grown in the past 2 years. Establish the plantation at least 150 m from the groves of wild raspberries.
Dig the soil to a depth of 20 cm to 25 cm and incorporate a good amount of manure or compost . Plant the feet as early as possible in the spring and trim the stems close to the ground. Late in the fall, protect the young plants with 15 cm of straw or dead leaves.
Throughout the growing season, maintain a 10 cm thick mulch to limit moisture loss through evaporation and to control weeds. During fruiting, it is important that the plants receive 4 cm to 5 cm of water per week and, thereafter, the same amount every 2 or 3 weeks.
At the end of the harvest, remove the stems that have given fruit by pruning them at the base of the plant. The maintenance size differs according to the cultivated species. Consult the nurseryman who supplied the plants.
To prevent bacterial blight , promote the aeration of the raspberry bush by pruning so as to keep only 10 to 12 stems per linear meter, eliminating weeds and avoiding excess nitrogen which causes late growth. If the disease manifests, disinfect the cutting tools with pure bleach (5% – 6%). The following year, treat early in the spring with a copper-based product.
To prevent neck tumor , buy plants that are guaranteed to be healthy and choose resistant varieties. Plant only in disease-free soil that has not borne sensitive crops for at least 3 years (raspberry, mulberry, plum, apple and vine). Remove and destroy infected plants, disinfect pruning instruments (pure bleach). Plant grass in the raspberry bush to minimize potential injury from mechanical weeders. When planting, soak the roots and collars in Dygall , a product based on bacteria antagonistic to this disease.
Ecology and environment
By their abundance and their multiple varieties, wild Rubus (raspberries and blackberries) play an important ecological role in nature. They appear on sandy soils, stripped by tree cutting or forest fires, and provide effective soil protection while waiting for the trees to re-establish. In addition, producing a lot of nectar, these plants attract bees , which has the effect of promoting the pollination of vegetable plants. Finally, they provide first-class food to birds that settle in their vicinity, and at the same time hunt unwanted insects.