Nutritional value of mango
|Raw mango, ½ fruit (100 g)|
Sources : Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File , 2010.
Mango: understand everything in 2 min
Mango health profile
The mango is a tropical fruit most consumed in the world after the banana. His flesh orange and juicy is a good source of fiber and vitamin C . It has anticancer potential , in particular thanks to its antioxidant content .
The benefits of mango
Several prospective and epidemiological studies have revealed that a high consumption of fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases 26 , certain cancers 27 and other chronic diseases 1 , 2,20,28 . The presence of antioxidants in fruits and vegetables could play a role in these protective effects.
- Cancer . One of the rare studies carried out specifically on mango has shown that mango juice exerts an anticancer effect on cells in vitro 19 . However, more studies will be needed to determine if these properties persist after digestion or absorption of the juice by the human body. Overall, the anticancer effect of mangoes is explained by their polyphenol content . In addition, it appears that the Haden and Ataulfo varieties have a higher preventive activity than the others 29 .
What does mango contain?
The mango , as guava and litchi, differs greatly from other tropical fruits by its high content of polyphenols (or phenolics) 4 . Phenolic compounds are found in plant foods. Their antioxidant capacity would protect the cells of the body from damage caused by free radicals . They would decrease the risk of developing several diseases 3 . Their abundance and composition differ according to the varieties 11 , 12 . For example, the variety Ataulfo would contain more polyphenols, vitamin C and beta-carotene and has an antioxidant capacity superior to the varieties Tommy Atkins, Haden, Kent and Keitt 30 . The concentration of phenolic compounds can also vary greatly between fruits of the same variety, within the same crop and for a similar degree of maturity 30 . The main polyphenol found in a ripe mango is gallic acid .
Mango also contains mangiferin and gallotannins as well as tannins 5 . These 3 compounds would however be present in a much greater proportion in the nucleus and the peel of the fruit 6 , 7 . Mangiferin has been studied mainly from extracts from the bark of the mango tree . Studies attribute beneficial properties against diabetes, inflammation , oxidative stress and high cholesterol 8-10. However, the mango contains 400 times less mangiferin than the bark of the tree, which is not enough to cause the observed effects.
The main carotenoids in mango are beta-carotene and violaxanthin 13-15 . These pigments with antioxidant properties give an orange-red color to foods that contain a large amount, such as mango. In some varieties of mangoes, beta-carotene accounts for 20% to almost 100% of total carotenoids 11 . Beta-carotene is an important precursor of vitamin A in the body. However, the different varieties of mango as well as the stage of ripening greatly influence the quantities of these carotenoids 14. A study has shown that ripe mango has a higher antioxidant activity than unripe fruit 5 . The mango also contain other types of carotenoids, such as beta-cryptoxanthin , but in smaller quantities 16 .
The edible part of the mango contains fiber , half of which is soluble fiber. Their proportion tends to increase with the ripening of the fruit 4 . Soluble fiber helps lower the risk of cardiovascular disease 17 thanks to its ability to lower blood cholesterol . The majority of soluble mango fibers appear to be in the form of pectin in an amount comparable to that of apple or banana, two fruits recognized for their high content of pectin 5 .
|Skin and stone: no waste!
The peel and the core of the mango represent respectively about 25% and 20% of the weight of the fruit 25 . Instead of being thrown away, these parts could have interesting properties for the food industry . The skin of the mango is known as a high quality pectin source 7 . The phenolic compounds it contains would also allow it to be used as a natural antioxidant 18 . The nucleus , meanwhile, also has antioxidant properties. It is also a source of edible oil, starch and flour 7 .
Main vitamins and minerals
|Vitamin C||Mango is a good source of vitamin C.|
|Vitamin A||Mango is a source of vitamin A for women only.|
|Vitamin B1 (thiamine)||Mango is a source of vitamin B1 .|
|Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)||Mango is a source of vitamin B2 for women only.|
|Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)||Mango is a source of vitamin B6.|
|Vitamin E||Mango is a source of vitamin E.|
|Copper||Mango is a source of copper .|
Few cases of mango allergy have been reported in the scientific literature. However, the real frequency of this allergy may have been underestimated because of the low consumption of this fruit in the countries of the North 21 . Allergies to tropical fruits have often been detected in people sensitive to latex . This phenomenon is called the “latex-fruit syndrome” 22 . Thus, people allergic to latex may suffer from hypersensitivity to certain tropical fruits, including mango. Mouth and throat damage is the most commonly seen consequence, but more severe symptoms, such as anaphylactic reactions, can also occur. People allergic to latex should therefore pay special attention when consuming these foods, given the potential severity of the reactions. It is recommended that you consult an allergist to determine the cause of reactions to certain foods and to better understand the precautions to be taken.
It is recognized that people allergic to mango can react to other foods or compounds through a cross-reaction . Indeed, a person allergic to mango could also react to celery , carrot , as well as birch and sagebrush pollens 23 . Certain common antigens would explain this phenomenon. However, these cross-reactions cannot be explained by any botanical relationship, since these foods or compounds are not part of the same family.
In some sensitive people, contact of the skin with different parts of a plant can cause an inflammation reaction . Contact dermatitis has been reported following contact with a mango tree (sap, leaves or stem) or the peel of the fruit 24 . In general, the edible part of the mango (the pulp) is not recognized as being able to cause this type of reaction. But caution is advised. Some people affected by this problem mistakenly believe that it is enough to have the fruit peeled by another person to consume it safely. Researchers Now Recognize That Pulpfound immediately below the surface of the mango peel may contain enough antigens to cause a reaction . 24 In order to be as careful as possible, it is recommended that sensitive individuals peel the fruit by removing a small amount of the flesh (about 5 mm) before consuming it.
Interaction with warfarin
Mango is one of the foods known to alter blood levels of warfarin . Warfarin, marketed as Coumadin ® , is a medication primarily used as an anticoagulant. To avoid problems, Health Canada recommends that people who eat these foods make sure they eat the same portions every day. In addition, it is recommended that you contact your health care professional to find out about other foods that can modify the effects of warfarin or act directly on blood clotting.
To access other recipes, you can go to the CuisineAZ.com cooking recipe site, which offers, among other things, the following recipes: mango chutney, mango mousse, mango coulis
- Cut fruits . Sprinkle with salt and season the mango slices, orange sections, strawberry halves and blueberries in a bowl with lemon juice. Put in the fridge and serve cold.
- Souskaï mango . This Réunion Island dish, which is served as an aperitif, is prepared by grating the green fruits into thin strips and seasoning them with salt, lemon juice and chilli.
- In a thousand and one desserts , such as chocolate fondues, mousses, coulis, sorbets, ice creams, frozen yogurt, pies, overturned cakes, etc.
- Shake drink . Blend mango with other seasonal fruits, milk, yogurt or soy milk and ice cubes.
- Cut mango puree and add to processed bread. Or cut it into cubes and add them to the muffin mixes.
- Cook pieces of mango for ten minutes, adding honey if desired. Serve over yogurt garnished with unsalted peanuts.
- Add the green fruit to the curries, stews and tagines.
- Add cubes to an omelet at the end of cooking. Cook for a minute, fold the omelet and serve.
- Salsa . Mix mango pieces, sliced green onions, lemon juice, jalapeño pepperand chopped cilantro leaves. Serve on a tortilla with rice and sautéed vegetables.
In India, fruits are dried in the sun and then reduced to a powder that serves as a spice. Its usefulness is due in particular to the fact that, like papaya, it has an enzyme which has the property of softening meats and promoting digestion.
- Raw relish . Dice avocados, mangoes and tomatoes, and mix. Add chopped green onions, chopped cilantro and parsley leaves, hot pepper and lime juice. Serve over meat or vegetables cooked on or under the grill.
- Glaze the poultry . Pass pieces in the blender by adding mango juice. Heat the butter in a pan, add the puree and a little honey, and bring gently to the boil. Book. Roast a poultry in the oven and, ten minutes before the end of cooking, glaze with the mango sauce. The recipe can be varied endlessly by adding garlic, shallots, onions, peppers, soy or Worcestershire sauce, white wine, orange or lemon juice, balsamic vinegar, Tabasco, as well as the spices of your choice (ginger and cumin are particularly indicated).
Ecology and environment
In orchards, irradiation is used more and more to eliminate the mango fly (or vinegar fly) and increase the shelf life of fruits. Upstream, hundreds of millions of male insects are sterilized by irradiating them with radioactive cobalt-60. The sterile males, released in the orchards, compete with the wild males and very strongly limit the offspring of the females. The technique is known as ” autocidal struggle ” ” Downstream, the fruits intended for export are then irradiated directly. For many exporting countries, this type of treatment has become almost mandatory. Certain importing countries, notably the United States, make it a prerequisite for the entry of mangoes into their territory.
Although the irradiation of food is approved by the World Health Organization , it is not unanimous within the scientific community and the population. Especially since, in the case of mango, it is not a question of protecting the population against pathogenic bacteria, but rather of facilitating trade between countries. There are concerns, among other things, about the environmental hazards of leaking radioactive cobalt-60 used for irradiation, as well as problems resulting from the transportation and storage of atomic waste.
There are other solutions to counter mango fly infestations, but they are more complex. Diversity can be promoted by planting more varieties and selecting resistant varieties . You can also practice polyculture and intercropping methods. This is done in certain regions of India, where mango trees rub shoulders with other fruit trees, legumes and various vegetables.
It is also possible to capture insects using a flycatcher , a container containing an attractive liquid, suspended in the trees. We also use bagging of fruits on the tree, when they emit the characteristic aromas that attract the fly. Finally, the traditional method of soaking the fruit in hot water after harvesting also gives satisfactory results.